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  2. September 30 is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar; 92 days remain until the end of the year. Events Pre-1600 489 – The Ostrogoths under Theoderic the Great defeat the forces of Odoacer for the second time. 737 – The Turgesh drive back an Umayyad invasion of Khuttal, follow them south of the Oxus, and capture their baggage train. 1399 – Henry IV is proclaimed king of England.[1] 1520 – Suleiman the Magnificent is proclaimed sultan of the Ottoman Empire. 1541 – Spanish conquistador Hernando de Soto and his forces enter Tula territory in present-day western Arkansas, encountering fierce resistance. 1551 – A coup by the military establishment of Japan's Ōuchi clan forces their lord to commit suicide, and their city is burned. 1601-1900 1744 – War of the Austrian Succession: France and Spain defeat Sardinia at the Battle of Madonna dell'Olmo, but soon have to withdraw from Sardinia anyway. 1791 – The first performance of Mozart's opera The Magic Flute takes place two months before his death. 1791 – France's National Constituent Assembly is dissolved, to be replaced the next day by the National Legislative Assembly 1882 – Thomas Edison's first commercial hydroelectric power plant (later known as Appleton Edison Light Company) begins operation. 1888 – Jack the Ripper kills his third and fourth victims, Elizabeth Stride and Catherine Eddowes. 1901-present 1906 – The Royal Galician Academy, the Galician language's biggest linguistic authority, starts working in La Coruña, Spain. 1907 – The McKinley National Memorial, the final resting place of assassinated U.S. President William McKinley and his family, is dedicated in Canton, Ohio. 1909 – The Cunard Line's RMS Mauretania makes a record-breaking westbound crossing of the Atlantic, that will not be bettered for 20 years. 1915 – World War I: Radoje Ljutovac becomes the first soldier in history to shoot down an enemy aircraft with ground-to-air fire. 1935 – The Hoover Dam, astride the border between the U.S. states of Arizona and Nevada, is dedicated. 1938 – Britain, France, Germany and Italy sign the Munich Agreement, whereby Germany annexes the Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia. 1938 – The League of Nations unanimously outlaws "intentional bombings of civilian populations". 1939 – World War II: General Władysław Sikorski becomes prime minister of the Polish government-in-exile. 1939 – NBC broadcasts the first televised American football game. 1941 – World War II: The Babi Yar massacre comes to an end. 1943 – The United States Merchant Marine Academy is dedicated by President Roosevelt. 1944 – The Germans commence a counter offensive to retake the Nijmegen salient, this having been captured by the allies during Operation Market Garden. 1945 – The Bourne End rail crash, in Hertfordshire, England, kills 43. 1947 – The 1947 World Series begins. It is the first to be televised, to include an African-American player, to exceed $2 million in receipts, to see a pinch-hit home run, and to have six umpires on the field. 1947 – Pakistan joins the United Nations. 1949 – The Berlin Airlift ends. 1954 – The U.S. Navy submarine USS Nautilus is commissioned as the world's first nuclear-powered vessel. 1962 – James Meredith enters the University of Mississippi, defying racial segregation rules. 1966 – Bechuanaland declares its independence, and becomes the Republic of Botswana. 1968 – The Boeing 747 is rolled out and shown to the public for the first time. 1970 – Jordan makes a deal with the PFLP for the release of the remaining hostages from the Dawson's Field hijackings. 1978 – Finnair Flight 405 aircraft was hijacked by Aarno Lamminparras in Oulu, Finland.[2] 1980 – Ethernet specifications are published by Xerox working with Intel and Digital Equipment Corporation. 1993 – The 6.2 Mw  Latur earthquake shakes Maharashtra, India with a maximum Mercalli intensity of VIII (Severe) killing 9,748 and injuring 30,000. 1999 – The Tokaimura nuclear accident causes the deaths of two technicians in Japan's second-worst nuclear accident. 2000 – Israeli-Palestinian conflict: Twelve-year-old Muhammad al-Durrah is shot and killed on the second day of the Second Intifada.[3] 2005 – Controversial drawings of Muhammad are printed in a Danish newspaper. 2009 – The 7.6 Mw  Sumatra earthquake leaves 1,115 people dead. 2016 – Hurricane Matthew becomes a Category 5 hurricane, making it the strongest hurricane to form in the Caribbean Sea since 2007. 2016 – Two paintings with a combined value of $100 million are recovered after having been stolen from the Van Gogh Museum in 2002. Holidays and observances Agricultural Reform (Nationalization) Day (São Tomé and Príncipe) Birth of Morelos (Mexico) Boy's Day (Poland) Christian feast day: Gregory the Illuminator Honorius of Canterbury Jerome September 30 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) Independence Day (Botswana) or Botswana Day, celebrates the independence of Botswana from United Kingdom in 1966. International Translation Day (International Federation of Translators)[15] Orange Shirt Day (Canada)
  3. September 29 is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar; 93 days remain until the end of the year. Events Pre-1600 61 BC – Pompey the Great celebrates his third triumph for victories over the pirates and the end of the Mithridatic Wars on his 45th birthday. 1011 – Danes capture Canterbury after a siege, taking Ælfheah, archbishop of Canterbury, as a prisoner. 1227 – Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, is excommunicated by Pope Gregory IX for his failure to participate in the Crusades. 1267 – The Treaty of Montgomery recognises Llywelyn ap Gruffudd as Prince of Wales, but only as a vassal of King Henry III. 1364 – English forces defeat the French in Brittany, ending the War of the Breton Succession. 1578 – Tegucigalpa, capital city of Honduras, is claimed by the Spaniards. 1601-1900 1714 – The Great Hatred: The Cossacks of the Russian Empire killed about 800 people overnight in Hailuoto.[1] 1717 – An earthquake strikes Antigua Guatemala, destroying much of the city's architecture. 1789 – The United States Department of War first establishes a regular army with a strength of several hundred men. 1789 – The 1st United States Congress adjourns. 1829 – The Metropolitan Police of London, later also known as the Met, is founded. 1848 – The Battle of Pákozd is a stalemate between Hungarian and Croatian forces, and is the first battle of the Hungarian Revolution. 1850 – The papal bull Universalis Ecclesiae restores the Roman Catholic hierarchy in England and Wales. 1855 – The Philippine port of Iloilo is opened to world trade by the Spanish administration.[2][3] 1864 – American Civil War: The Battle of Chaffin's Farm is fought. 1864 – The Treaty of Lisbon defines the boundaries between Spain and Portugal and abolishes the Couto Misto microstate. 1885 – The first practical public electric tramway in the world is opened in Blackpool, England. 1901-present 1907 – The cornerstone is laid at the Cathedral Church of Saint Peter and Saint Paul (better known as Washington National Cathedral) in Washington, D.C.[4] 1911 – Italy declares war on the Ottoman Empire. 1918 – World War I: Bulgaria signs the Armistice of Salonica. 1918 – The Hindenburg Line is broken by an Allied attack. 1918 – Germany's Supreme Army Command tells the Kaiser and the Chancellor to open negotiations for an armistice. 1923 – The British Mandate for Palestine takes effect, creating Mandatory Palestine. 1923 – The French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon takes effect. 1923 – The First American Track and Field championships for women are held. 1932 – Chaco War: Last day of the Battle of Boquerón between Paraguay and Bolivia. 1940 – Two Avro Ansons collide in mid-air over New South Wales, Australia, remain locked together, then land safely. 1941 – World War II: German forces, with the aid of local Ukrainian collaborators, begin the two-day Babi Yar massacre. 1949 – The Communist Party of China writes the Common Programme for the future People's Republic of China. 1954 – The convention establishing CERN (the European Organization for Nuclear Research) is signed. 1957 – The Kyshtym disaster is the third-worst nuclear accident ever recorded. 1971 – Oman joins the Arab League. 1972 – China–Japan relations: Japan establishes diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China after breaking official ties with the Republic of China. 1975 – WGPR becomes the first black-owned-and-operated television station in the US. 1979 – The dictator Francisco Macias of Equatorial Guinea is shot by soldiers from Western Sahara. 1988 – NASA launches STS-26, the first mission since the Challenger disaster. 1990 – Construction of the Cathedral Church of Saint Peter and Saint Paul (better known as Washington National Cathedral) is completed in Washington, D.C.[5] 1990 – The YF-22, which would later become the F-22 Raptor, flies for the first time. 1990 – The Tampere Hall, the largest concert and congress center in the Nordic countries, was inaugurated in Tampere, Finland.[6] 1991 – A Haitian coup d'état occurs. 1992 – Brazilian President Fernando Collor de Mello is impeached. 2004 – The asteroid 4179 Toutatis passes within four lunar distances of Earth. 2004 – Burt Rutan's Ansari SpaceShipOne performs a successful spaceflight, the first of two required to win the Ansari X Prize. 2006 – A Boeing 737 and an Embraer 600 collide in mid-air, killing 154 people and triggering a Brazilian aviation crisis. 2007 – Calder Hall, the world's first commercial nuclear power station, is demolished in a controlled explosion. 2009 – The 8.1 Mw  Samoa earthquake results in a tsunami that kills 189 and injures hundreds. 2011 – The special court in India convicted all 269 accused officials for atrocity on Dalits and 17 for rape in the Vachathi case. 2013 – Over 42 people are killed by members of Boko Haram at the College of Agriculture in Nigeria. 2016 – Eleven days after the Uri attack, the Indian Army conducts "surgical strikes" against suspected militants in Pakistani-administered Kashmir.[7] 2019 – Violence and low turnout mar the 2019 Afghan presidential election.[8] 2019 – At least 59 people are reported dead due to monsoon rains in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, India. Holidays and observances Christian feast day: Rhipsime September 29 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) the Archangels Michael, Gabriel, and Raphael. One of the four quarter days in the Irish calendar. (England and Ireland). Called Michaelmas in some western liturgical traditions Inventors' Day (Argentina) Victory of Boquerón Day (Paraguay) World Heart Day
  4. September 28 is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar; 94 days remain until the end of the year. Events Pre-1600 48 BC – Pompey disembarks at Pelusium upon arriving in Egypt, whereupon he is assassinated by order of King Ptolemy XIII.[1] 235 – Pope Pontian resigns. He is exiled to the mines of Sardinia, along with Hippolytus of Rome. 351 – Constantius II defeats the usurper Magnentius. 365 – Roman usurper Procopius bribes two legions passing by Constantinople, and proclaims himself emperor. 935 – Duke Wenceslaus I of Bohemia is murdered by a group of nobles led by his brother Boleslaus I, who succeeds him. 995 – Boleslaus II, Duke of Bohemia, kills most members of the rival Slavník dynasty. 1066 – William the Conqueror lands in England, beginning the Norman conquest. 1106 – King Henry I of England defeats his brother Robert Curthose at the Battle of Tinchebray. 1238 – King James I of Aragon conquers Valencia from the Moors. Shortly thereafter, he proclaims himself king of Valencia. 1322 – Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor, defeats Frederick I of Austria in the Battle of Mühldorf. 1538 – Ottoman–Venetian War: The Ottoman Navy scores a decisive victory over a Holy League fleet in the Battle of Preveza. 1542 – Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo of Portugal arrives at what is now San Diego, California. He is the first European in California. [2] 1601-1900 1779 – American Revolution: Samuel Huntington is elected President of the Continental Congress, succeeding John Jay. 1781 – American Revolution: American forces backed by a French fleet begin the siege of Yorktown. 1787 – The Congress of the Confederation votes to send the newly written United States Constitution to the state legislatures for approval. 1821 – The Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire is drafted. It will be made public on 13 October. 1844 – Oscar I of Sweden–Norway is crowned king of Sweden. 1867 – Toronto becomes the capital of Ontario, having also been the capital of Ontario's predecessors since 1796. 1868 – The Battle of Alcolea causes Queen Isabella II of Spain to flee to France. 1871 – The Brazilian Parliament passes a law that frees all children thereafter born to slaves, and all government-owned slaves. 1889 – The General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM) defines the length of a meter. 1892 – The first night game for American football takes place in a contest between Wyoming Seminary and Mansfield State Normal. 1893 – Foundation of the Portuguese football club FC Porto. 1901-present 1901 – Philippine–American War: Filipino guerrillas kill more than forty American soldiers while losing 28 of their own. 1912 – The Ulster Covenant is signed by some 500,000 Ulster Protestant Unionists in opposition to the Third Irish Home Rule Bill. 1912 – Corporal Frank S. Scott of the United States Army becomes the first enlisted man to die in an airplane crash. 1918 – World War I: The Fifth Battle of Ypres begins. 1919 – Race riots begin in Omaha, Nebraska. 1924 – The first aerial circumnavigation is completed by a team from the US Army. 1928 – Alexander Fleming notices a bacteria-killing mold growing in his laboratory, discovering what later became known as penicillin. 1939 – World War II: Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union agree on a division of Poland. 1939 – World War II: The siege of Warsaw comes to an end. 1941 – World War II: The Drama uprising against the Bulgarian occupation in northern Greece begins. 1941 – Ted Williams achieves a .406 batting average for the season, and becomes the last major league baseball player to bat .400 or better. 1944 – World War II: Soviet Army troops liberate Klooga concentration camp in Estonia. 1951 – CBS makes the first color televisions available for sale to the general public, but the product is discontinued less than a month later. 1961 – A military coup in Damascus effectively ends the United Arab Republic, the union between Egypt and Syria. 1970 – Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser dies of a heart attack in Cairo. 1973 – The ITT Building in New York City is bombed in protest at ITT's alleged involvement in the coup d'état in Chile. 1975 – The Spaghetti House siege, in which nine people are taken hostage, takes place in London. 1986 – The Democratic Progressive Party becomes the first opposition party in Taiwan. 1992 – A Pakistan International Airlines flight crashes into a hill in Nepal, killing all 167 passengers and crew. 1994 – The cruise ferry MS Estonia sinks in the Baltic Sea, killing 852 people.[3] 1995 – Bob Denard and a group of mercenaries take the islands of the Comoros in a coup. 1995 – Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat sign the Interim Agreement on the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. 2000 – Al-Aqsa Intifada: Ariel Sharon visits Al-Aqsa Mosque known to Jews as the Temple Mount in Jerusalem. 2008 – Falcon 1 becomes the first privately developed liquid-fuel ground-launched vehicle to put a payload into orbit. 2008 – The Singapore Grand Prix is held as Formula One's inaugural night race, with Fernando Alonso winning the event. Almost a year later it was revealed that Alonso's team-mate Nelson Piquet Jr. had been ordered to crash his car to help bring out the safety car and give Alonso the advantage and win.[4][5] 2009 – The military junta leading Guinea attacks a protest rally, killing or wounding 1400 people. 2012 – Somali and African Union forces launch a coordinated assault on the Somali port of Kismayo to take back the city from al-Shabaab militants. 2014 – The 2014 Hong Kong protests begin in response to restrictive political reforms imposed by the NPC in Beijing. 2016 – The 2016 South Australian blackout occurs, lasting up to three days in some areas. 2018 – The 7.5 Mw 2018 Sulawesi earthquake, which triggered a large tsunami, leaves 4,340 dead and 10,679 injured. 2020 – Sixteen killed from carbon monoxide poisoning in China’s southwestern city of Chongqing coal mine. Holidays and observances Christian feast day: Aaron of Auxerre Annemund Conval Eustochium Exuperius Faustus of Riez John of Dukla Leoba Lorenzo Ruiz Paternus of Auch Richard Rolle, Walter Hilton and Margery Kempe (Episcopal Church (USA)) Simón de Rojas Wenceslas September 28 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics). Czech Statehood Day (Czech Republic) Freedom from Hunger Day International Day for Universal Access to Information[23] National Day of Awareness and Unity against Child Pornography (Philippines) Teachers' Day (Taiwan and Chinese-Filipino schools in the Philippines), ceremonies dedicated to Confucius are also observed. World Rabies Day (International)
  5. September 27 is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar; 95 days remain until the end of the year. Events Pre-1600 1066 – William the Conqueror and his army set sail from the mouth of the Somme river, beginning the Norman conquest of England.[1] 1331 – The Battle of Płowce is fought, between the Kingdom of Poland and the Teutonic Order. The Poles are defeated but their leaders escape capture.[2] 1422 – After the brief Gollub War, the Teutonic Knights sign the Treaty of Melno with Poland and Lithuania.[3] 1529 – The Siege of Vienna begins when Suleiman I attacks the city.[4] 1540 – The Society of Jesus (Jesuits) receives its charter from Pope Paul III.[5] 1590 – The death of Pope Urban VII, 13 days after being chosen as the Pope, ends the shortest papal reign in history. 1601-1900 1605 – The armies of Sweden are defeated by the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in the Battle of Kircholm. 1669 – The Venetians surrender the fortress of Candia to the Ottomans, thus ending the 21-year-long Siege of Candia. 1777 – American Revolution: Lancaster, Pennsylvania becomes the capital of the United States for one day after Congress evacuates Philadelphia. 1791 – The National Assembly votes to award full citizenship to Jews in France. 1822 – Jean-François Champollion announces that he has deciphered the Rosetta Stone. 1825 – The world's first public railway to use steam locomotives, the Stockton and Darlington Railway, is ceremonially opened. 1854 – The steamship SS Arctic sinks with 300 people on board. 1875 – The merchant sailing ship Ellen Southard is wrecked in a storm at Liverpool. 1901-present 1903 – The Wreck of the Old 97, an American rail disaster that became the subject of a popular ballad. 1908 – Production of the Model T automobile begins at the Ford Piquette Avenue Plant in Detroit. 1916 – Iyasu V is proclaimed deposed as ruler of Ethiopia in a palace coup in favor of his aunt Zewditu. 1922 – King Constantine I of Greece abdicates his throne in favor of his eldest son, George II. 1928 – The Republic of China is recognized by the United States. 1930 – Bobby Jones wins the (pre-Masters) Grand Slam of golf. 1938 – The ocean liner Queen Elizabeth is launched in Glasgow. 1940 – World War II: The Tripartite Pact is signed in Berlin by Germany, Japan and Italy. 1941 – The Greek National Liberation Front is established with Georgios Siantos as acting leader. 1941 – The SS Patrick Henry is launched, becoming the first of more than 2,700 Liberty ships. 1942 – Last day of the Matanikau action on Guadalcanal as United States Marines barely escape after being surrounded by Japanese forces. 1944 – The Kassel Mission results in the largest loss by a USAAF group on any mission in World War II. 1949 – Zeng Liansong's design is chosen as the flag of the People's Republic of China. 1956 – USAF Captain Milburn G. Apt becomes the first person to exceed Mach 3. Shortly thereafter, the Bell X-2 goes out of control and Captain Apt is killed. 1959 – Typhoon Vera kills nearly 5,000 people in Japan. 1962 – The Yemen Arab Republic is established. 1962 – Rachel Carson's book Silent Spring is published, inspiring an environmental movement and the creation of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1964 – The British TSR-2 aircraft XR219 makes its maiden flight. 1975 – The last use of capital punishment in Spain sparks worldwide protests. 1977 – Japan Airlines Flight 715 crashes on approach to Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah Airport in Subang, Malaysia, killing 34 of the 79 people on board.[6] 1988 – The National League for Democracy is formed by Aung San Suu Kyi and others to fight dictatorship in Myanmar. 1993 – The Sukhumi massacre takes place in Abkhazia.[7] 1996 – The Battle of Kabul ends in a Taliban victory; an Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan is established. 1996 – Confusion on a tanker ship results in the Julie N. oil spill in Portland, Maine. 1998 – The Google internet search engine retroactively claims this date as its birthday. 2001 – In Switzerland, a gunman shoots 18 citizens, killing 14 and then himself. 2003 – The SMART-1 satellite is launched.[8] 2007 – NASA launches the Dawn probe to the asteroid belt. 2008 – CNSA astronaut Zhai Zhigang becomes the first Chinese person to perform a spacewalk. 2012 – In Minneapolis, a gunman shoots seven citizens, killing five and then himself. 2014 – The eruption of Mount Ontake in Japan occurs. 2019 – Over two million people participated in worldwide strikes to protest climate change across 2,400 locations worldwide. Holidays and observances Christian feast days: Adheritus[29] Caius of Milan[30] Vincent de Paul[23] September 27 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) Consumación de la Independencia (Mexico) French Community Holiday (French community of Belgium) Independence Day (Turkmenistan), celebrates the independence of Turkmenistan from USSR in 1991. Meskel (Ethiopian and Eritrean Orthodox Church, following Julian calendar, September 28 on leap years) National Gay Men's HIV/AIDS Awareness Day (United States)[31] Polish Underground State's Day (Poland)[32] World Tourism Day (International)
  6. September 26 is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar; 96 days remain until the end of the year. Events Pre-1600 46 BC – Julius Caesar dedicates a temple to Venus Genetrix, fulfilling a vow he made at the Battle of Pharsalus. 715 – Ragenfrid defeats Theudoald at the Battle of Compiègne. 1087 – William II is crowned King of England, and reigns until 1100. 1212 – The Golden Bull of Sicily is issued to confirm the hereditary royal title in Bohemia for the Přemyslid dynasty. 1345 – Friso-Hollandic Wars: Frisians defeat Holland in the Battle of Warns. 1371 – Serbian–Turkish wars: Ottoman Turks fought against a Serbian army at the Battle of Maritsa. 1493 – Pope Alexander VI issues the papal bull Dudum siquidem to the Spanish, extending the grant of new lands he made them in Inter caetera. 1580 – Francis Drake finishes his circumnavigation of the Earth in Plymouth, England. 1601-1900 1687 – Morean War: The Parthenon in Athens, used as a gunpowder depot by the Ottoman garrison, is partially destroyed after being bombarded during the Siege of the Acropolis by Venetian forces. 1688 – The city council of Amsterdam votes to support William of Orange's invasion of England, which became the Glorious Revolution. 1777 – American Revolution: British troops occupy Philadelphia. 1789 – George Washington appoints Thomas Jefferson the first United States Secretary of State.[1] 1799 – War of the 2nd Coalition: Franco-Swiss troops defeat Austro-Russian forces, leading to the collapse of Suvorov's campaign.[2] 1810 – A new Act of Succession is adopted by the Riksdag of the Estates, and Jean Baptiste Bernadotte becomes heir to the Swedish throne.[3] 1901-present 1905 – Albert Einstein publishes the third of his Annus Mirabilis papers, introducing the special theory of relativity. 1907 – Four months after the 1907 Imperial Conference, New Zealand and Newfoundland are promoted from colonies to dominions within the British Empire. 1910 – Indian journalist Swadeshabhimani Ramakrishna Pillai is arrested after publishing criticism of the government of Travancore and is exiled. 1914 – The United States Federal Trade Commission is established by the Federal Trade Commission Act.[4] 1917 – World War I: The Battle of Polygon Wood begins. 1918 – World War I: The Meuse-Argonne Offensive began which would last until the total surrender of German forces. 1923 – The German government accepts the occupation of the Ruhr. 1933 – As gangster Machine Gun Kelly surrenders to the FBI, he shouts out, "Don't shoot, G-Men!", which becomes a nickname for FBI agents. 1934 – The ocean liner RMS Queen Mary is launched. 1936 – Spanish Civil War: Lluis Companys reshuffles the Generalitat de Catalunya, with the marxist POUM and anarcho-syndicalist CNT joining the government.[5] 1942 – Holocaust: Senior SS official August Frank issues a memorandum detailing how Jews should be "evacuated". 1950 – Korean War: United Nations troops recapture Seoul from North Korean forces. 1953 – Rationing of sugar in the United Kingdom ends 1954 – The Japanese rail ferry Tōya Maru sinks during a typhoon in the Tsugaru Strait, Japan, killing 1,172. 1959 – Typhoon Vera, the strongest typhoon to hit Japan in recorded history, makes landfall, killing 4,580 people and leaving nearly 1.6 million others homeless. 1960 – In Chicago, the first televised debate takes place between presidential candidates Richard M. Nixon and John F. Kennedy. 1969 – Abbey Road, the last recorded album by the Beatles, is released. 1973 – Concorde makes its first non-stop crossing of the Atlantic in record-breaking time. 1980 – At the Oktoberfest terror attack in Munich 13 people die and 211 are injured. 1981 – Nolan Ryan sets a Major League record by throwing his fifth no-hitter. 1983 – Soviet Air Force officer Stanislav Petrov identifies a report of an incoming nuclear missile as a computer error and not an American first strike. 1983 – Australia II wins the America's Cup, ending the New York Yacht Club's 132-year domination of the race. 1984 – The United Kingdom and China agree to a transfer of sovereignty over Hong Kong, to take place in 1997. 1997 – A Garuda Indonesia Airbus A300 crashes near Medan airport, killing 234. 1997 – An earthquake strikes the Italian regions of Umbria and the Marche, causing part of the Basilica of St. Francis at Assisi to collapse. 2000 – Anti-globalization protests in Prague (some 20,000 protesters) turn violent during the IMF and World Bank summits. 2000 – The MS Express Samina sinks off Paros in the Aegean Sea killing 80 passengers. 2002 – The overcrowded Senegalese ferry, MV Le Joola, capsizes off the coast of the Gambia killing more than 1,000. 2005 – The PBS Kids Channel is shut down and replaced by a joint network with Comcast called Sprout. 2008 – Swiss pilot and inventor Yves Rossy becomes first person to fly a jet engine-powered wing across the English Channel. 2009 – Typhoon Ketsana hits the Philippines, China, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos and Thailand, causing 700 fatalities. 2014 – A mass kidnapping occurs in Iguala, Mexico. Holidays and observances Christian feast days: Canadian Martyrs (Catholic Church in Canada) Cosmas and Damian John of Meda Nilus the Younger Wilson Carlile (Anglican) September 26 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) Day of the National Flag (Ecuador) Dominion Day (New Zealand) European Day of Languages (European Union) National Good Neighbor Day (United States) Revolution Day (Yemen)
  7. September 25 is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar; 97 days remain until the end of the year. Events Pre-1600 275 – For the last time, the Roman Senate chooses an emperor; they elect 75-year-old Marcus Claudius Tacitus.[1] 762 – Led by Muhammad al-Nafs al-Zakiyya, the Hasanid branch of the Alids begins the Alid Revolt against the Abbasid Caliphate. 1066 – In the Battle of Stamford Bridge, Harald Hardrada, the invading King of Norway, is defeated by King Harold II of England.[2] 1237 – England and Scotland sign the Treaty of York, establishing the location of their common border. 1396 – Ottoman Emperor Bayezid I defeats a Christian army at the Battle of Nicopolis. 1513 – Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa reaches what would become known as the Pacific Ocean. 1555 – The Peace of Augsburg is signed by Emperor Charles V and the princes of the Schmalkaldic League. 1601-1900 1690 – Publick Occurrences Both Forreign and Domestick, the first newspaper to appear in the Americas, is published for the first and only time. 1768 – Unification of Nepal[3] 1775 – American Revolution: Ethan Allen surrenders to British forces after attempting to capture Montreal during the Battle of Longue-Pointe. 1775 – American Revolution: Benedict Arnold's expedition to Quebec sets off. 1789 – The United States Congress passes twelve constitutional amendments: the ten known as the Bill of Rights, the (unratified) Congressional Apportionment Amendment, and the Congressional Compensation Amendment. 1790 – Four Great Anhui Troupes introduce Anhui opera to Beijing in honor of the Qianlong Emperor's eightieth birthday. 1804 – The Teton Sioux (a subdivision of the Lakota) demand one of the boats from the Lewis and Clark Expedition as a toll for allowing the expedition to move further upriver. 1868 – The Imperial Russian steam frigate Alexander Nevsky is shipwrecked off Jutland while carrying Grand Duke Alexei Alexandrovich of Russia.[4] 1890 – The United States Congress establishes Sequoia National Park. 1901-present 1906 – Leonardo Torres y Quevedo demonstrates the Telekino, guiding a boat from the shore, in what is considered to be the first use of a remote control. 1911 – An explosion of badly degraded propellant charges on board the French battleship Liberté detonates the forward ammunition magazines and destroys the ship. 1912 – Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism is founded in New York City. 1915 – World War I: The Second Battle of Champagne begins. 1926 – The international Convention to Suppress the Slave Trade and Slavery is first signed. 1937 – Second Sino-Japanese War: The Chinese Eighth Route Army gains a minor, but morale-boosting victory in the Battle of Pingxingguan. 1944 – World War II: Surviving elements of the British 1st Airborne Division withdraw from Arnhem via Oosterbeek. 1955 – The Royal Jordanian Air Force is founded. 1956 – TAT-1, the first submarine transatlantic telephone cable system, is inaugurated. 1957 – Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas, is integrated by the use of United States Army troops. 1959 – Solomon Bandaranaike, Prime Minister of Sri Lanka, is mortally wounded by a Buddhist monk, Talduwe Somarama, and dies the next day. 1962 – The People's Democratic Republic of Algeria is formally proclaimed. Ferhat Abbas is elected President of the provisional government. 1962 – The North Yemen Civil War begins when Abdullah al-Sallal dethrones the newly crowned Imam al-Badr and declares Yemen a republic under his presidency. 1963 – Lord Denning releases the UK government's official report on the Profumo affair. 1964 – The Mozambican War of Independence against Portugal begins. 1969 – The charter establishing the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation is signed. 1974 – Dr. Frank Jobe performs first ulnar collateral ligament replacement surgery (better known as Tommy John surgery) on baseball player Tommy John. 1977 – About 4,200 people take part in the first running of the Chicago Marathon. 1978 – PSA Flight 182, a Boeing 727, collides in mid-air with a Cessna 172 and crashes in San Diego, killing 144 people. 1981 – Belize joins the United Nations. 1983 – Thirty-eight IRA prisoners, armed with six handguns, hijack a prison meals lorry and smash their way out of the Maze Prison. 1992 – NASA launches the Mars Observer. Eleven months later, the probe would fail while preparing for orbital insertion. 1998 – PauknAir Flight 4101, a British Aerospace 146, crashes near Melilla Airport in Melilla, Spain, killing 38 people.[5] 2003 – The 8.3 Mw  Hokkaidō earthquake strikes just offshore Hokkaidō, Japan. 2018 – Bill Cosby is sentenced to three to ten years in prison for aggravated sexual assault. Holidays and observances Armed Forces Day or Revolution Day (Mozambique) Christian feast day: Abadir and Iraja and Companions (Coptic Church) Aunarius (Aunacharius) Anathalon (Archdiocese of Milan) Cadoc Ceolfrith Cleopas Euphrosyne of Alexandria Finbarr Fermin of Amiens Lancelot Andrewes (Church of England) Sergius of Radonezh (repose) Vincent Strambi September 25 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) Day of National Recognition for the Harkis (France) National Research Administrators Day (United States)[13] National Youth Day (Nauru)
  8. September 24 is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar; 98 days remain until the end of the year. Events Pre-1600 787 – Second Council of Nicaea: The council assembles at the church of Hagia Sophia. 1568 – Spanish naval forces defeat an English fleet, under the command of John Hawkins, at the Battle of San Juan de Ulúa near Veracruz.[1] 1601-1900 1645 – The Battle of Rowton Heath is a Parliamentarian victory over a Royalist army commanded in person by King Charles. 1674 – Second Tantrik Coronation of Shivaji. 1789 – The United States Congress passes the Judiciary Act, creating the office of the Attorney General and federal judiciary system and ordering the composition of the Supreme Court. 1830 – A revolutionary committee of notables forms the Provisional Government of Belgium. 1841 – The Sultanate of Brunei cedes Sarawak to the United Kingdom. 1846 – Mexican–American War: General Zachary Taylor captures Monterrey. 1852 – The first airship powered by (a steam) engine, created by Henri Giffard, travels 17 miles (27 km) from Paris to Trappes. 1853 – Admiral Despointes formally takes possession of New Caledonia in the name of France. 1869 – Gold prices plummet after President Grant orders the Treasury to sell large quantities of gold after Jay Gould and James Fisk plot to control the market. 1877 – The Battle of Shiroyama is a decisive victory of the Imperial Japanese Army over the Satsuma Rebellion. 1890 – The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints officially renounces polygamy. 1901-present 1906 – U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt proclaims Devils Tower in Wyoming as the nation's first National Monument. 1906 – Racial tensions exacerbated by rumors lead to the Atlanta Race Riot, further increasing racial segregation. 1911 – His Majesty's Airship No. 1, Britain's first rigid airship, is wrecked by strong winds before her maiden flight at Barrow-in-Furness. 1929 – Jimmy Doolittle performs the first flight without a window, proving that full instrument flying from take off to landing is possible. 1932 – Gandhi and Dr. Ambedkar agree to the Poona Pact, which reserved seats in the Indian provincial legislatures for the "Depressed Classes" (Untouchables). 1935 – Earl and Weldon Bascom produce the first rodeo ever held outdoors under electric lights. 1946 – Cathay Pacific Airways is founded in Hong Kong. 1946 – The top-secret Clifford-Elsey Report on the Soviet Union is delivered to President Truman. 1948 – The Honda Motor Company is founded. 1950 – The eastern United States is covered by a thick haze from the Chinchaga fire in western Canada.[2] 1957 – President Eisenhower sends the 101st Airborne Division to Little Rock, Arkansas, to enforce desegregation. 1960 – USS Enterprise, the world's first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier, is launched. 1972 – Japan Airlines Flight 472 lands at Juhu Aerodrome instead of Santacruz Airport in Bombay, India. 1973 – Guinea-Bissau declares its independence from Portugal. 1975 – Southwest Face expedition members become the first persons to reach the summit of Mount Everest by any of its faces, instead of using a ridge route. 1993 – The Cambodian monarchy is restored, with Norodom Sihanouk as king. 1996 – Representatives of 71 nations sign the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty at the United Nations. 2005 – Hurricane Rita makes landfall in the United States, devastating portions of southwestern Louisiana and extreme southeastern Texas. 2007 – Between 30,000 and 100,000 people take part in anti-government protests in Yangon, Burma, the largest in 20 years. 2008 – Thabo Mbeki resigns as president of South Africa. 2009 – The G20 summit begins in Pittsburgh with 30 global leaders in attendance. 2009 – Airlink Fight 8911 crashes near Durban International Airport in Durban, South Africa, killing the captain and injuring the rest of the crew.[3] 2013 – A 7.7-magnitude earthquake strikes southern Pakistan, killing at least 327 people. 2014 – The Mars Orbiter Mission makes India the first Asian nation to reach Mars orbit, and the first nation in the world to do so in its first attempt. 2015 – At least 1,100 people are killed and another 934 wounded after a stampede during the Hajj in Saudi Arabia. Holidays and observances Armed Forces Day (Peru) Christian feast day: Anathalon (in Brescia) Antonio Gonzalez Blessed Émilie Gamelin[14] (Canada) Gerard of Csanád Our Lady of Mercy and its related observance: La Mercè (Barcelona) Our Lady of Ransom (Mercedarians) Our Lady of Walsingham (Church of England) Pacificus of San Severino Rupert of Salzburg September 24 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics). Constitution Day (Cambodia) Earliest day on which Maple Leaf Day can fall, while September 30 is the latest; celebrated on the last Wednesday in September. (Canada) Heritage Day (South Africa). Independence Day, celebrates the independence of Guinea-Bissau from Portugal in 1973. Mahidol Day (Thailand) New Caledonia Day (New Caledonia) Republic Day (Trinidad and Tobago)
  9. September 23 is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar; 99 days remain until the end of the year. Events Pre-1600 38 – Drusilla, Caligula's sister who died in June, with whom the emperor is said to have an incestuous relationship, is deified.[1] 1122 – Pope Callixtus II and Holy Roman Emperor Henry V agree to the Concordat of Worms to put an end to the Investiture Controversy. 1338 – The Battle of Arnemuiden, in which a French force defeats the English, is the first naval battle of the Hundred Years' War and the first naval battle in which gunpowder artillery is used.[2] 1409 – The Battle of Kherlen is the second significant victory over Ming dynasty China by the Mongols since 1368. 1459 – The Battle of Blore Heath, the first major battle of the English Wars of the Roses, is won by the Yorkists.[3] 1561 – King Philip II of Spain issues cedula, ordering halt to colonizing efforts in Florida.[4] 1601-1900 1641 – The Merchant Royal, carrying a treasure of over 100,000 pounds of gold (worth over £1 billion today), is lost at sea off Land's End. 1642 – The first commencement exercises occur at Harvard College. 1779 – American Revolution: John Paul Jones, naval commander of the United States, on board the USS Bonhomme Richard, wins the Battle of Flamborough Head.[5] 1780 – American Revolution: British Major John André is arrested as a spy by American soldiers exposing Benedict Arnold's change of sides. 1803 – Second Anglo-Maratha War: The Battle of Assaye is fought between the British East India Company and the Maratha Empire in India.[6] 1806 – Lewis and Clark return to St. Louis after exploring the Pacific Northwest of the United States. 1821 – Tripolitsa, Greece, is captured by Greek rebels during the Greek War of Independence. 1845 – The Knickerbockers Baseball Club, the first baseball team to play under the modern rules, is founded in New York. 1846 – Astronomers Urbain Le Verrier, John Couch Adams and Johann Gottfried Galle collaborate on the discovery of Neptune. 1868 – Grito de Lares ("Lares Revolt") occurs in Puerto Rico against Spanish rule. 1884 – On the night of 23 to 24 September steamship Arctique runs aground near Cape Virgenes leading to the discovery of nearby placer gold and beginning the Tierra del Fuego gold rush.[7] 1889 – Nintendo Koppai (Later Nintendo Company, Limited) is founded by Fusajiro Yamauchi to produce and market the playing card game Hanafuda. 1899 – The American Asiatic Squadron destroys a Filipino battery at the Battle of Olongapo. 1901-present 1905 – Norway and Sweden sign the Karlstad Treaty, peacefully dissolving the Union between the two countries. 1911 – Pilot Earle Ovington makes the first official airmail delivery in America under the authority of the United States Post Office Department. 1913 – Roland Garros of France becomes the first to fly in an airplane across the Mediterranean (from St. Raphael in France to Bizerte, Tunisia). 1932 – The unification of Saudi Arabia is completed. 1938 – The Czechoslovak army is mobilized in response to the Munich Agreement. 1942 – World War II: The Matanikau action on Guadalcanal begins: U.S. Marines attack Japanese units along the Matanikau River. 1943 – World War II: The Nazi puppet state known as the Italian Social Republic is founded. 1950 – Korean War: The Battle of Hill 282 is the first US friendly-fire incident on British military personnel since World War II. 1962 – The Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts opens in New York City. 1973 – Argentine general election: Juan Perón returns to power in Argentina. 1983 – Saint Kitts and Nevis joins the United Nations. 1983 – Gulf Air Flight 771 is destroyed by a bomb, killing all 117 people on board. 1986 – Houston Astros' Jim Deshaies sets a record, striking out the first eight batters he faces against the Los Angeles Dodgers. 2002 – The first public version of the web browser Mozilla Firefox ("Phoenix 0.1") is released. 2004 – Over 3,000 people die in Haiti after Hurricane Jeanne produces massive flooding and mudslides. 2008 – Matti Saari kills ten people at a school in Finland before committing suicide.[8] 2019 – The British travel company, Thomas Cook Group, declares bankruptcy, leaving employees without jobs and 600,000 customers stranded abroad. Hotels throughout the world are stuck with £338 million (U.S. $415 million) in unpaid bills. Holidays and observances Christian feast day: Adomnán Cissa of Crowland (or of Northumbria) Padre Pio Pope Linus Sossius Thecla (Roman Catholic Church) Xanthippe and Polyxena September 23 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) Grito de Lares (Puerto Rico) Holocaust Memorial Day (Lithuania) Kyrgyz Language Day (Kyrgyzstan) National Day (Saudi Arabia) Teachers' Day (Brunei) Celebrate Bisexuality Day (bisexual community)[26] International Day of Sign Languages
  10. September 22 is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar; 100 days remain until the end of the year. It is frequently the day of the autumnal equinox in the Northern Hemisphere and the day of the vernal equinox in the Southern Hemisphere, though sometimes this falls on September 21 or September 23 instead. Events Pre-1600 904 – The warlord Zhu Quanzhong kills Emperor Zhaozong, the penultimate emperor of the Tang dynasty, after seizing control of the imperial government. 1236 – The Samogitians defeat the Livonian Brothers of the Sword in the Battle of Saule. 1499 – The Treaty of Basel concludes the Swabian War. 1586 – The Battle of Zutphen is a Spanish victory over the English and Dutch. 1601-1900 1692 – The last hanging of those convicted of witchcraft in the Salem witch trials; others are all eventually released. 1711 – The Tuscarora War begins in present-day North Carolina. 1761 – George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz are crowned King and Queen, respectively, of the Kingdom of Great Britain. 1776 – Nathan Hale is hanged for spying during the American Revolution. 1789 – The office of United States Postmaster General is established. 1789 – Battle of Rymnik: Alexander Suvorov's Russian and allied army defeats superior Ottoman Empire forces. 1792 – Primidi Vendémiaire of year one of the French Republican Calendar as the French First Republic comes into being. 1823 – Joseph Smith claims to have found the golden plates after being directed by God through the Angel Moroni to the place where they were buried. 1857 – The Russian warship Lefort capsizes and sinks during a storm in the Gulf of Finland, killing all 826 aboard. 1862 – A preliminary version of the Emancipation Proclamation is released by Abraham Lincoln. 1866 – The Battle of Curupayty is Paraguay's only significant victory in the Paraguayan War. 1885 – Lord Randolph Churchill makes a speech in Ulster in opposition to the Irish Home Rule movement. 1891 – The first hydropower plant of Finland was commissioned along the Tammerkoski rapids in Tampere, Pirkanmaa.[1][2] 1892 – Lindal Railway Incident, providing inspiration for "The Lost Special" by A.C. Doyle and the TV serial Lost. 1896 – Queen Victoria surpasses her grandfather King George III as the longest reigning monarch in British history. 1901-present 1910 – The Duke of York's Picture House opens in Brighton, now the oldest continually operating cinema in Britain. 1914 – A German submarine sinks three British cruisers over a seventy-minute period, killing almost 1500 sailors. 1919 – The steel strike of 1919, led by the Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers, begins in Pennsylvania before spreading across the United States. 1934 – The Gresford disaster in Wales kills 266 miners and rescuers. 1939 – World War II: A joint German–Soviet military parade in Brest-Litovsk is held to celebrate the successful invasion of Poland. 1941 – The Holocaust in Ukraine: On the Jewish New Year Day, the German SS murders 6,000 Jews in Vinnytsia, Ukraine. Those are the survivors of the previous killings that took place a few days earlier in which about 24,000 Jews were executed. 1948 – Gail Halvorsen officially starts parachuting candy to children as part of the Berlin Airlift. 1948 – Israeli-Palestine conflict: The All-Palestine Government is established by the Arab League.[3] 1957 – In Haiti, François Duvalier is elected president. 1960 – The Sudanese Republic is renamed Mali after the withdrawal of Senegal from the Mali Federation. 1965 – The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 between India and Pakistan over Kashmir, ends after the United Nations calls for a ceasefire. 1975 – Sara Jane Moore tries to assassinate U.S. President Gerald Ford, but is foiled by the Secret Service. 1979 – A bright flash, resembling the detonation of a nuclear weapon, is observed near the Prince Edward Islands. Its cause is never determined. 1980 – Iraq invades Iran. 1991 – The Dead Sea Scrolls are made available to the public for the first time. 1993 – A barge strikes a railroad bridge near Mobile, Alabama, causing the deadliest train wreck in Amtrak history. Forty-seven passengers are killed. 1993 – A Transair Georgian Airlines Tu-154 is shot down by a missile in Sukhumi, Georgia. 1995 – An E-3B AWACS crashes outside Elmendorf Air Force Base, Alaska after multiple bird strikes to two of the four engines soon after takeoff; all 24 on board are killed. 1995 – The Nagerkovil school bombing is carried out by the Sri Lanka Air Force in which at least 34 die, most of them ethnic Tamil schoolchildren. 2006 – Twenty-three people were killed in a maglev train collision in Lathen, Germany.[4] 2013 – At least 75 people are killed in a suicide bombing at a Christian church in Peshawar, Pakistan. Holidays and observances American Business Women's Day (United States) Christian feast days: Candidus Digna and Emerita Emmeram of Regensburg Felix and Constantia Ignatius of Santhià (Lorenzo Maurizio Belvisotti) Laud of Coutances Maurice (Western Christianity) Paul Chong Hasang (one of The Korean Martyrs) Phocas (the Gardener, or of Sinope) Phocas, Bishop of Sinope Sadalberga Saintin (Sanctinus) de Meaux Septimius of Iesi (this date since 1623) Theban Legion Thomas of Villanova Philander Chase (Episcopal Church) September 22 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) Earliest date for the autumnal equinox in the Northern Hemisphere and the vernal equinox in the Southern Hemisphere: Autumnal Equinox Day (Japan) Mabon in the Northern Hemisphere, Ostara in the Southern Hemisphere. (Neopagan Wheel of the Year) The first day of Miķeļi (Latvia) Independence Day, celebrates the independence of Bulgaria from the Ottoman Empire in 1908. Independence Day, celebrates the independence of Mali from France in 1960. Resistance Fighting Day (Estonia)
  11. September 21 is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar; 101 days remain until the end of the year. It is occasionally the day of the autumnal equinox in the Northern Hemisphere and the day of the vernal equinox in the Southern Hemisphere, though this usually falls on September 22 or September 23. Events 455 – Emperor Avitus enters Rome with a Gallic army and consolidates his power. 1170 – The Kingdom of Dublin falls to Norman invaders. 1217 – Livonian Crusade: The Estonian leader Lembitu and Livonian leader Kaupo the Accursed are killed in the Battle of St. Matthew's Day. 1435 – The Congress of Arras causes Burgundy to switch sides in the Hundred Years' War. 1745 – A Hanoverian army is defeated, in ten minutes, by the Jacobite forces of Prince Charles Edward Stuart 1776 – Part of New York City is burned shortly after being occupied by British forces. 1780 – American Revolutionary War: Benedict Arnold gives the British the plans to West Point. 1792 – French Revolution: The National Convention abolishes the monarchy. 1809 – British Secretary of War Lord Castlereagh and Foreign Secretary George Canning meet in a duel on Putney Heath, with Castlereagh wounding Canning in the thigh.[1] 1843 – The crew of schooner Ancud, including John Williams Wilson, takes possession of the Strait of Magellan on behalf of the Chilean government. 1860 – Second Opium War: An Anglo-French force defeats Chinese troops at the Battle of Palikao. 1896 – Anglo-Egyptian conquest of Sudan: British forces under the command of Horatio Kitchener take Dongola. 1898 – Empress Dowager Cixi seizes power and ends the Hundred Days' Reform in China. 1921 – A storage silo in Oppau, Germany, explodes, killing 500–600 people. 1933 – Salvador Lutteroth establishes Mexican professional wrestling. 1934 – A large typhoon hits western Honshū, Japan, killing more than 3,000 people. 1938 – The Great Hurricane of 1938 makes landfall on Long Island in New York. The death toll is estimated at 500–700 people. 1939 – Romanian Prime Minister Armand Călinescu is assassinated by the Iron Guard. 1942 – The Holocaust in Ukraine: On the Jewish holiday of Yom Kippur, Nazis send over 1,000 Jews of Pidhaitsi to Bełżec extermination camp. 1942 – The Holocaust in Ukraine: In Dunaivtsi, Ukraine, Nazis murder 2,588 Jews. 1942 – The Holocaust in Poland: At the end of Yom Kippur, Germans order Jews to permanently move from Konstantynów to Biała Podlaska. 1942 – The Boeing B-29 Superfortress makes its maiden flight. 1949 – The People's Republic of China is proclaimed. 1953 – Lieutenant No Kum-sok, a North Korean pilot, defects to South Korea with his jet fighter. 1957 – Pamir, a four-masted barque, was shipwrecked and sank off the Azores during Hurricane Carrie.[2] 1964 – Malta gains independence from the United Kingdom, but remains in the Commonwealth. 1964 – The North American XB-70 Valkyrie, the world's fastest bomber, makes its maiden flight from Palmdale, California. 1965 – The Gambia, Maldives and Singapore are admitted as members of the United Nations. 1971 – Bahrain, Bhutan and Qatar join the United Nations. 1972 – Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos begins authoritarian rule by declaring martial law. 1976 – Orlando Letelier is assassinated in Washington, D.C. He had been a member of the former Chilean Marxist government. 1976 – Seychelles joins the United Nations. 1981 – Belize is granted full independence from the United Kingdom. 1981 – Sandra Day O'Connor is unanimously approved by the U.S. Senate as the first female Supreme Court justice. 1984 – Brunei joins the United Nations. 1991 – Armenia gains independence from the Soviet Union. 1993 – Russian President Boris Yeltsin triggers a constitutional crisis when he suspends parliament and scraps the constitution. 1996 – The Defense of Marriage Act is passed by the United States Congress. 1997 – St. Olaf's Church, a stone church from the 16th century in Tyrvää, Finland, was burnt down by a burglar.[3] 1999 – The Chi-Chi earthquake occurs in central Taiwan, leaving about 2,400 people dead. 2001 – America: A Tribute to Heroes is broadcast by over 35 network and cable channels, raising over $200 million for the victims of the September 11 attacks. 2001 – Ross Parker is murdered in Peterborough, England, by a gang of ten British Pakistani youths. 2003 – The Galileo spacecraft is terminated by sending it into Jupiter's atmosphere. 2012 – Three Egyptian militants open fire on a group of Israeli soldiers in a southern Israel cross-border attack.[4] 2013 – Al-Shabaab Islamic militants attack the Westgate shopping mall in Kenya, killing at least 67 people. 2019 – A 5.6 Mw earthquake shakes the Albanian port of Durrës. Forty-nine people are injured in the capital, Tirana. Holidays and observances Autumnal equinox observances in the Northern Hemisphere, vernal equinox observances in the Southern Hemisphere (see September 22😞 Spring Day (Argentina) Christian feast day: Ephigenia of Ethiopia Laurent-Joseph-Marius Imbert (one of the Korean Martyrs) Matthew the Evangelist (Western Church) Nativity of the Theotokos (Eastern Orthodox Church, Julian calendar) September 21 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) Arbor Day (Brazil) Commemoration of the Declaration of Martial Law (Philippines) Customs Service Day (Poland) Founder's Day and National Volunteer Day (Ghana) Independence Day, celebrates the independence of Armenia from the Soviet Union in 1991. Independence Day, celebrates the independence of Belize from the United Kingdom in 1981. Independence Day, celebrates the independence of Malta from the United Kingdom in 1964. International Day of Peace (International)[18] National Pecan Cookie Day (United States) Student's Day (Bolivia) Victory over the Golden Horde in the Battle of Kulikovo (Russia)
  12. September 20 is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar; 102 days remain until the end of the year. Events Pre-1600 1058 – Agnes of Poitou and Andrew I of Hungary meet to negotiate about the border territory of Burgenland.[1] 1066 – At the Battle of Fulford, Harald Hardrada defeats earls Morcar and Edwin.[2] 1187 – Saladin begins the Siege of Jerusalem. 1260 – The Great Prussian Uprising among the old Prussians begins against the Teutonic Knights.[3] 1378 – Cardinal Robert of Geneva is elected as Pope Clement VII, beginning the Papal schism. 1498 – The Nankai tsunami washes away the building housing the Great Buddha at Kōtoku-in. It has been outside since then. 1519 – Ferdinand Magellan sets sail from Sanlúcar de Barrameda with about 270 men on his expedition to circumnavigate the globe. 1601-1900 1697 – The Treaty of Ryswick is signed by France, England, Spain, the Holy Roman Empire and the Dutch Republic, ending the Nine Years' War. 1737 – The finish of the Walking Purchase which forces the cession of 1.2 million acres (4,860 km2) of Lenape-Delaware tribal land to the Pennsylvania Colony. 1792 – French troops stop an allied invasion of France at the Battle of Valmy.[4] 1835 – The decade-long Ragamuffin War starts when rebels capture Porto Alegre in Brazil. 1854 – Crimean War: British and French troops defeat Russians at the Battle of Alma. 1857 – The Indian Rebellion of 1857 ends with the recapture of Delhi by troops loyal to the East India Company. 1860 – The future King Edward VII of the United Kingdom begins the first visit to North America by a Prince of Wales. 1863 – American Civil War: The Battle of Chickamauga, in northwestern Georgia, ends in a Confederate victory. 1870 – The Bersaglieri corps enter Rome through the Porta Pia, and complete the unification of Italy. 1871 – Bishop John Coleridge Patteson, first bishop of Melanesia, is martyred on Nukapu, now in the Solomon Islands. 1881 – U.S. President Chester A. Arthur is sworn in, the morning after becoming president upon James A. Garfield's death. 1893 – Charles Duryea and his brother road-test the first American-made gasoline-powered automobile. 1901-present 1911 – The White Star Line's RMS Olympic collides with the British warship HMS Hawke.[5][6] 1920 – Irish War of Independence: British police known as "Black and Tans" burned the town of Balbriggan and killed two local men in revenge for an Irish Republican Army (IRA) assassination.[7] 1941 – The Holocaust in Lithuania: Lithuanian Nazis and local police begin a mass execution of 403 Jews in Nemenčinė.[8] 1942 – The Holocaust in Ukraine: In the course of two days a German Einsatzgruppe murders at least 3,000 Jews in Letychiv.[9] 1946 – The first Cannes Film Festival is held, having been delayed seven years due to World War II.[10] 1946 – Six days after a referendum, King Christian X of Denmark annuls the declaration of independence of the Faroe Islands. 1954 – The first Moomins comic strip was published in the British newspaper The Evening News.[11] 1955 – The Treaty on Relations between the USSR and the GDR is signed. 1961 – Greek general Konstantinos Dovas becomes Prime Minister of Greece.[12] 1962 – James Meredith, an African American, is temporarily barred from entering the University of Mississippi. 1965 – Following the Battle of Burki, the Indian Army captures Dograi in course of the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965. 1967 – RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 is launched Clydebank, Scotland.[13] 1971 – Having weakened after making landfall in Nicaragua the previous day, Hurricane Irene regains enough strength to be renamed Hurricane Olivia, making it the first known hurricane to cross from the Atlantic Ocean into the Pacific. 1973 – Billie Jean King beats Bobby Riggs in the Battle of the Sexes tennis match at the Houston Astrodome.[14] 1973 – Singer Jim Croce, songwriter and musician Maury Muehleisen and four others die when their light aircraft crashes on takeoff at Natchitoches Regional Airport in Louisiana.[15] 1977 – Vietnam is admitted to the United Nations.[16] 1979 – A French-supported coup d'état in the Central African Empire overthrows Emperor Bokassa I.[17] 1982 – 1982 NFL season: American football players in the National Football League begin a 57-day strike.[18] 1984 – A suicide bomber in a car attacks the U.S. embassy in Beirut, Lebanon, killing twenty-two people.[19] 1990 – South Ossetia declares its independence from Georgia.[20] 2000 – The United Kingdom's MI6 Secret Intelligence Service building is attacked by individuals using a Russian-built RPG-22 anti-tank missile.[21] 2001 – In an address to a joint session of Congress and the American people, U.S. President George W. Bush declares a "War on Terror". 2003 – Civil unrest in the Maldives breaks out after a prisoner is killed by guards.[22] 2007 – Between 15,000 and 20,000 protesters marched on Jena, Louisiana, in support of six black youths who had been convicted of assaulting a white classmate.[23] 2008 – A dump truck full of explosives detonates in front of the Marriott hotel in Islamabad, Pakistan, killing 54 people and injuring 266 others.[24] 2011 – The United States military ends its "Don't ask, don't tell" policy, allowing gay men and women to serve openly for the first time.[25] 2017 – Hurricane Maria makes landfall in Puerto Rico as a powerful Category 4 hurricane, resulting in 2,975 deaths, US$90 billion in damage, and a major humanitarian crisis.[26][27] 2018 – At least 161 people die after a ferry capsized close to the pier on Ukara Island in Lake Victoria and part of Tanzania.[28] 2019 – Roughly Four4 million people, mostly students, demonstrate across the world to address climate change.[29][30] Sixteen-year-old Greta Thunberg from Sweden leads the demonstration in New York City. Holidays and observances Christian feast day: Agapitus (Western Christianity) Eustace (Western Christianity) Evilasius Fausta of Cyzicus Glycerius of Milan Jean-Charles Cornay (one of Vietnamese Martyrs) John Coleridge Patteson (commemoration, Anglicanism) José Maria de Yermo y Parres Korean Martyrs, including Andrew Kim Taegon and Laurent-Marie-Joseph Imbert Theodore, Philippa and companions Vincent Madelgarius (Maelceadar) September 20 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) Constitution Day (Nepal) Independence Day of South Ossetia (not fully recognized) National Youth Day (Thailand) Oil Workers' Day (Azerbaijan) Universal Children's Day (Germany)
  13. September 19 is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar; 103 days remain until the end of the year. Events Pre-1600 634 – Siege of Damascus: The Rashidun Arabs under Khalid ibn al-Walid capture Damascus from the Byzantine Empire. 1356 – Battle of Poitiers: An English army under the command of Edward, the Black Prince defeats a French army and captures King John II. 1410 – End of the Siege of Marienburg: The State of the Teutonic Order repulses the joint Polish—Lithuanian forces.[1][2] 1601-1900 1676 – Jamestown is burned to the ground by the forces of Nathaniel Bacon during Bacon's Rebellion. 1777 – American Revolutionary War: British forces win a tactically expensive victory over the Continental Army in the First Battle of Saratoga. 1778 – The Continental Congress passes the first United States federal budget. 1796 – George Washington's Farewell Address is printed across America as an open letter to the public. 1799 – French Revolutionary Wars: French-Dutch victory against the Russians and British in the Battle of Bergen. 1846 – Two French shepherd children, Mélanie Calvat and Maximin Giraud, experience a Marian apparition on a mountaintop near La Salette, France, now known as Our Lady of La Salette.[3] 1852 – Annibale de Gasparis discovers the asteroid Massalia from the north dome of the Astronomical Observatory of Capodimonte.[4] 1862 – American Civil War: Union troops under William Rosecrans defeat a Confederate force commanded by Sterling Price.[5] 1863 – American Civil War: The first day of the Battle of Chickamauga, in northwestern Georgia, the bloodiest two-day battle of the conflict, and the only significant Confederate victory in the war's Western Theater. 1864 – American Civil War: Union troops under Philip Sheridan defeat a Confederate force commanded by Jubal Early. With over 50,000 troops engaged, it was the largest battle fought in the Shenandoah Valley. 1868 – La Gloriosa begins in Spain. 1870 – Franco-Prussian War: The siege of Paris begins. The city will hold out for over four months before surrendering. 1881 – U.S. President James A. Garfield dies of wounds suffered in a July 2 shooting. Vice President Chester A. Arthur becomes President upon Garfield's death. 1893 – In New Zealand, the Electoral Act of 1893 is consented to by the governor, giving all women in New Zealand the right to vote. 1901-present 1916 – World War I: During the East African Campaign, colonial forces of the Belgian Congo (Force Publique) under the command of Charles Tombeur capture the town of Tabora after heavy fighting. 1939 – World War II: The Battle of Kępa Oksywska concludes, with Polish losses reaching roughly 14% of all the forces engaged. 1940 – World War II: Witold Pilecki is voluntarily captured and sent to Auschwitz concentration camp to gather and smuggle out information for the resistance movement.[6][7] 1944 – World War II: The Battle of Hürtgen Forest begins. It will become the longest individual battle that the U.S. Army has ever fought. 1944 – World War II: The Moscow Armistice between Finland and the Soviet Union is signed. 1946 – The Council of Europe is founded following a speech by Winston Churchill at the University of Zurich. 1952 – The United States bars Charlie Chaplin from re-entering the country after a trip to England. 1957 – Plumbbob Rainier becomes the first nuclear explosion to be entirely contained underground, producing no fallout. 1970 – Michael Eavis hosts the first Glastonbury Festival. 1970 – Kostas Georgakis, a Greek student of geology, sets himself ablaze in Matteotti Square in Genoa, Italy, as a protest against the dictatorial regime of Georgios Papadopoulos. 1976 – Turkish Airlines Flight 452 hits the Taurus Mountains, outskirt of Karatepe, Turkey, killing all 154 passengers and crew. 1976 – Two Imperial Iranian Air Force F-4 Phantom II jets fly out to investigate an unidentified flying object, when both independently lose instrumentation and communications as they approach, only to have them restored upon withdrawal. 1978 – The Solomon Islands join the United Nations. 1982 – Scott Fahlman posts the first documented emoticons :-) and :-( on the Carnegie Mellon University bulletin board system. 1983 – Saint Kitts and Nevis gains its independence. 1985 – A strong earthquake kills thousands and destroys about 400 buildings in Mexico City. 1985 – Tipper Gore and other political wives form the Parents Music Resource Center as Frank Zappa and other musicians testify at U.S. Congressional hearings on obscenity in rock music. 1989 – A bomb destroys UTA Flight 772 in mid-air above the Tùnùrù Desert, Niger, killing all 170 passengers and crew. 1991 – Ötzi the Iceman is discovered in the Alps on the border between Italy and Austria. 1995 – The Washington Post and The New York Times publish the Unabomber manifesto. 1997 – The Guelb El-Kebir massacre in Algeria kills 53 people. 2006 – The Thai army stages a coup. The Constitution is revoked and martial law is declared. 2010 – The leaking oil well in the Deepwater Horizon oil spill is sealed. 2011 – Mariano Rivera of the New York Yankees surpasses Trevor Hoffman to become Major League Baseball's all-time saves leader with 602. 2016 – In the wake of a manhunt, the suspect in a series of bombings in New York and New Jersey is apprehended after a shootout with police. 2017 – The 2017 Puebla earthquake strikes Mexico, causing 370 deaths and over 6,000 injuries, as well as extensive damage. 2019 – A drone strike by the United States kills 30 civilian farmers in Afghanistan. Holidays and observances Christian feast day: Alonso de Orozco Mena Emilie de Rodat Goeric of Metz Januarius (Western Christianity) Feast of San Gennaro Our Lady of La Salette Theodore of Tarsus (Anglican Communion, Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church) Trophimus, Sabbatius, and Dorymedon September 19 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) Armed Forces Day (Chile) Day of the First Public Appearance of the Slovak National Council Second day of Fiestas Patrias (Chile) Independence Day, celebrates the independence of Saint Kitts and Nevis from the United Kingdom in 1983. International Talk Like a Pirate Day
  14. September 18 is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar; 104 days remain until the end of the year. Events Pre-1600 AD 96 – Nerva is proclaimed Roman emperor after Domitian is assassinated.[1] 324 – Constantine the Great decisively defeats Licinius in the Battle of Chrysopolis, establishing Constantine's sole control over the Roman Empire.[2] 1048 – Battle of Kapetron between a combined Byzantine-Georgian army and a Seljuq army.[3] 1066 – Norwegian king Harald Hardrada lands with Tostig Godwinson at the mouth of the Humber River and begins his invasion of England.[4] 1180 – Philip Augustus becomes king of France at the age of fifteen.[5] 1454 – Thirteen Years' War: In the Battle of Chojnice, the Polish army is defeated by the Teutonic knights. 1544 – The expedition of Juan Bautista Pastene makes landfall in San Pedro Bay, southern Chile, claiming the territory for Spain.[6] 1601-1900 1618 – The twelfth baktun in the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar begins. 1714 – George I arrives in Great Britain after becoming king on August 1. 1739 – The Treaty of Belgrade is signed, whereby Austria cedes lands south of the Sava and Danube rivers to the Ottoman Empire. 1759 – French and Indian War: The Articles of Capitulation of Quebec are signed. 1793 – The first cornerstone of the United States Capitol is laid by George Washington. 1809 – The Royal Opera House in London opens. 1810 – First Government Junta in Chile. Though supposed to rule only during the Peninsular War in Spain, it is in fact the first step towards independence from Spain, and is commemorated as such. 1812 – The 1812 Fire of Moscow dies down after destroying more than three-quarters of the city. Napoleon returns from the Petrovsky Palace to the Moscow Kremlin, spared from the fire. 1837 – Tiffany & Co. (first named Tiffany & Young) is founded by Charles Lewis Tiffany and Teddy Young in New York City. The store is called a "stationery and fancy goods emporium". 1838 – The Anti-Corn Law League is established by Richard Cobden. 1850 – The U.S. Congress passes the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850. 1851 – First publication of The New-York Daily Times, which later becomes The New York Times. 1862 – The Confederate States celebrate for the first and only time a Thanksgiving Day.[7] 1864 – American Civil War: John Bell Hood begins the Franklin–Nashville Campaign in an unsuccessful attempt to draw William Tecumseh Sherman back out of Georgia.[8] 1870 – Old Faithful Geyser is observed and named by Henry D. Washburn. 1872 – King Oscar II accedes to the throne of Sweden–Norway. 1873 – The bank Jay Cooke & Company declares bankruptcy, contributing to the Panic of 1873. 1879 – The Blackpool Illuminations are switched on for the first time.[9] 1882 – The Pacific Stock Exchange opens. 1895 – The Atlanta Exposition Speech on race relations is delivered by Booker T. Washington. 1898 – The Fashoda Incident, a territorial dispute between Britain and France, triggers a war scare.[10] 1901-present 1906 – The 1906 Hong Kong typhoon kills an estimated 10,000 people.[11] 1914 – The Irish Home Rule Act becomes law, but is delayed until after World War I. 1919 – Fritz Pollard becomes the first African American to play professional football for a major team, the Akron Pros. 1922 – The Kingdom of Hungary is admitted to the League of Nations. 1927 – The Columbia Broadcasting System goes on the air. 1928 – Juan de la Cierva makes the first autogyro crossing of the English Channel. 1931 – The Mukden Incident gives Japan a pretext to invade and occupy Manchuria. 1934 – The Soviet Union is admitted to the League of Nations. 1939 – World War II: The Polish government of Ignacy Mościcki flees to Romania. 1939 – World War II: The radio show Germany Calling begins transmitting Nazi propaganda. 1940 – World War II: The British liner SS City of Benares is sunk by German submarine U-48; those killed include 77 child refugees. 1943 – World War II: Adolf Hitler orders the deportation of Danish Jews. 1944 – World War II: The British submarine HMS Tradewind torpedoes Jun'yō Maru, killing 5,600, mostly slave labourers and POWs. 1944 – World War II: The Battle of Arracourt begins.[12] 1945 – General Douglas MacArthur moves his general headquarters from Manila to Tokyo. 1947 – The National Security Act reorganizes the United States government's military and intelligence services. 1948 – Operation Polo is terminated after the Indian Army accepts the surrender of the army of Hyderabad. 1948 – Margaret Chase Smith of Maine becomes the first woman elected to the United States Senate without completing another senator's term. 1954 – Finnish president J. K. Paasikivi becomes the first Western Head of State to be awarded the highest honor of the Soviet Union, the Order of Lenin.[13][14] 1960 – Fidel Castro arrives in New York City as the head of the Cuban delegation to the United Nations. 1961 – U.N. Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjöld dies in an air crash while attempting to negotiate peace in the Katanga region of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. 1962 – Burundi, Jamaica, Rwanda and Trinidad and Tobago are admitted to the United Nations. 1973 – The Bahamas, East Germany and West Germany are admitted to the United Nations. 1974 – Hurricane Fifi strikes Honduras with 110 mph winds, killing 5,000 people. 1977 – Voyager I takes the first distant photograph of the Earth and the Moon together. 1980 – Soyuz 38 carries two cosmonauts (including one Cuban) to the Salyut 6 space station. 1981 – The Assemblée Nationale votes to abolish capital punishment in France. 1982 – The Sabra and Shatila massacre in Lebanon comes to an end. 1984 – Joe Kittinger completes the first solo balloon crossing of the Atlantic. 1988 – The 8888 Uprising in Myanmar comes to an end. 1990 – Liechtenstein becomes a member of the United Nations. 1992 – An explosion rocks Giant Mine at the height of a labor dispute, killing nine replacement workers in Yellowknife, Canada. 1997 – United States media magnate Ted Turner donates US$1 billion to the United Nations. 1997 – The Anti-Personnel Mine Ban Convention is adopted. 2001 – First mailing of anthrax letters from Trenton, New Jersey in the 2001 anthrax attacks. 2007 – Buddhist monks join anti-government protesters in Myanmar, starting what some call the Saffron Revolution. 2011 – The 2011 Sikkim earthquake is felt across northeastern India, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and southern Tibet. 2012 – Greater Manchester Police officers PC Nicola Hughes and PC Fiona Bone are murdered in a gun and grenade ambush attack in Greater Manchester, England. 2014 – Scotland votes against independence from the United Kingdom, by 55% to 45%. 2015 – Two security personnel, 17 worshippers in a mosque, and 13 militants are killed during a Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan attack on a Pakistan Air Force base on the outskirts of Peshawar. 2016 – The 2016 Uri attack in Jammu and Kashmir, India by terrorist group Jaish-e-Mohammed results in the deaths of nineteen Indian Army soldiers and all four attackers. Holidays and observances Christian feast day: Constantius (Theban Legion) Edward Bouverie Pusey (Episcopal Church) Eustorgius I Joseph of Cupertino Juan Macias Methodius of Olympus Richardis September 18 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) Day of National Music (Azerbaijan) Island Language Day (Okinawa Prefecture, Japan) National Day or Dieciocho (Chile) National HIV/AIDS and Aging Awareness Day (United States) Navy Day (Croatia) World Water Monitoring Day
  15. September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar; 105 days remain until the end of the year. Events Pre-1600 1111 – Highest Galician nobility led by Pedro Fróilaz de Traba and the bishop Diego Gelmírez crown Alfonso VII as "King of Galicia".[1] 1176 – The Battle of Myriokephalon is the last attempt by the Byzantine Empire to recover central Anatolia from the Seljuk Turks. 1382 – Louis the Great's daughter, Mary, is crowned "king" of Hungary. 1462 – Thirteen Years' War: A Polish army under Piotr Dunin decisively defeats the Teutonic Order at the Battle of Świecino. 1577 – The Treaty of Bergerac is signed between King Henry III of France and the Huguenots.[2] 1601-1900 1620 – Polish–Ottoman War: The Ottoman Empire defeats the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth during the Battle of Cecora. 1631 – Sweden wins a major victory at the Battle of Breitenfeld against the Holy Roman Empire during the Thirty Years' War. 1658 – The Battle of Vilanova is fought between Portugal and Spain during the Portuguese Restoration War. 1683 – Antonie van Leeuwenhoek writes a letter to the Royal Society describing "animalcules", later known as protozoa.[3] 1775 – American Revolutionary War: The Invasion of Canada begins with the Siege of Fort St. Jean. 1776 – The Presidio of San Francisco is founded in New Spain. 1778 – The Treaty of Fort Pitt is signed. It is the first formal treaty between the United States and a Native American tribe. 1787 – The United States Constitution is signed in Philadelphia. 1793 – War of the Pyrenees: France defeats a Spanish force at the Battle of Peyrestortes. 1794 – Flanders Campaign: France completes its conquest of the Austrian Netherlands at the Battle of Sprimont. 1809 – Peace between Sweden and Russia in the Finnish War; the territory that will become Finland is ceded to Russia by the Treaty of Fredrikshamn. 1849 – American abolitionist Harriet Tubman escapes from slavery. 1859 – Joshua A. Norton declares himself "Norton I, Emperor of the United States." 1861 – Argentine Civil Wars: The State of Buenos Aires defeats the Argentine Confederation at the Battle of Pavón. 1862 – American Civil War: George B. McClellan halts the northward drive of Robert E. Lee's Confederate Army in the single-day Battle of Antietam, the bloodiest day in American military history. 1862 – American Civil War: The Allegheny Arsenal explosion results in the single largest civilian disaster during the war. 1894 – Battle of the Yalu River, the largest naval engagement of the First Sino-Japanese War. 1900 – Philippine–American War: Filipinos under Juan Cailles defeat Americans under Colonel Benjamin F. Cheatham Jr. at Mabitac. 1901-present 1901 – Second Boer War: A Boer column defeats a British force at the Battle of Blood River Poort. 1901 – Second Boer War: Boers capture a squadron of the 17th Lancers at the Battle of Elands River. 1908 – The Wright Flyer flown by Orville Wright, with Lieutenant Thomas Selfridge as passenger, crashes, killing Selfridge, who becomes the first airplane fatality. 1914 – Andrew Fisher becomes Prime Minister of Australia for the third time. 1914 – World War I: The Race to the Sea begins. 1916 – World War I: Manfred von Richthofen ("The Red Baron"), a flying ace of the German Luftstreitkräfte, wins his first aerial combat near Cambrai, France. 1920 – The National Football League is organized as the American Professional Football Association in Canton, Ohio.[4][5] 1924 – The Border Protection Corps is established in the Second Polish Republic for the defence of the eastern border against armed Soviet raids and local bandits. 1928 – The Okeechobee hurricane strikes southeastern Florida, killing more than 2,500 people. 1930 – The Kurdish Ararat rebellion is suppressed by the Turks. 1932 – A speech by Laureano Gómez leads to the escalation of the Leticia Incident. 1935 – The Niagara Gorge Railroad ceases operations after a rockslide.[6] 1939 – World War II: The Soviet invasion of Poland begins. 1939 – World War II: German submarine U-29 sinks the British aircraft carrier HMS Courageous. 1940 – World War II: Due to setbacks in the Battle of Britain and approaching autumn weather, Hitler postpones Operation Sea Lion. 1941 – World War II: A decree of the Soviet State Committee of Defense restores compulsory military training. 1941 – World War II: Soviet forces enter Tehran during the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran. 1944 – World War II: Allied airborne troops parachute into the Netherlands as the "Market" half of Operation Market Garden. 1944 – World War II: Soviet troops launch the Tallinn Offensive against Germany and pro-independence Estonian units. 1944 – World War II: German forces are attacked by the Allies in the Battle of San Marino. 1948 – The Lehi (also known as the Stern gang) assassinates Count Folke Bernadotte, who was appointed by the United Nations to mediate between the Arab nations and Israel. 1948 – The Nizam of Hyderabad surrenders his sovereignty over the Hyderabad State and joins the Indian Union. 1949 – The Canadian steamship SS Noronic burns in Toronto Harbour with the loss of over 118 lives. 1961 – The world's first retractable roof stadium, the Civic Arena, opens in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 1965 – The Battle of Chawinda is fought between Pakistan and India.[7] 1974 – Bangladesh, Grenada and Guinea-Bissau join the United Nations. 1976 – The Space Shuttle Enterprise is unveiled by NASA. 1978 – The Camp David Accords are signed by Israel and Egypt. 1980 – After weeks of strikes at the Lenin Shipyard in Gdańsk, Poland, the nationwide independent trade union Solidarity is established. 1980 – Former Nicaraguan President Anastasio Somoza Debayle is killed in Asunción, Paraguay. 1983 – Vanessa Williams becomes the first black Miss America. 1991 – Estonia, North Korea, South Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, the Marshall Islands and Micronesia join the United Nations. 1991 – The first version of the Linux kernel (0.01) is released to the Internet. 1992 – An Iranian Kurdish leader and his two joiners are assassinated by political militants in Berlin. 2001 – The New York Stock Exchange reopens for trading after the September 11 attacks, the longest closure since the Great Depression. 2006 – Fourpeaked Mountain in Alaska erupts, marking the first eruption for the volcano in at least 10,000 years. 2006 – An audio tape of a private speech by Hungarian Prime Minister Ferenc Gyurcsány is leaked to the public, in which he confessed that his Hungarian Socialist Party had lied to win the 2006 election, sparking widespread protests across the country. 2011 – Occupy Wall Street movement begins in Zuccotti Park, New York City. 2013 – Grand Theft Auto V earns more than half a billion dollars on its first day of release.[8] 2016 – Two bombs explode in Seaside Park, New Jersey, and Manhattan. Thirty-one people are injured in the Manhattan bombing. 2018 – A Russian reconnaissance aircraft carrying 15 people on board is brought down by a Syrian surface-to-air missile over the Mediterranean Sea. Holidays and observances Australian Citizenship Day Christian feast day: Albert of Vercelli Ariadne of Phrygia Blessed Cecilia Eusepi Stanislaus Papczyński Hildegard of Bingen Lambert Robert Bellarmine Satyrus of Milan Socrates and Stephen Zygmunt Szczęsny Feliński September 17 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) Constitution Day, observed on the previous Friday if it falls on a Saturday, the following Monday if on a Sunday; and the beginning of the Constitution Week (United States) Heroes' Day (Angola)[38] Marathwada Liberation Day (Maharashtra) Operation Market Garden Anniversary is still remembered with parachuting and dedications on this day. (Netherlands) Teachers' Day (Honduras)
  16. September 16 is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar; 106 days remain until the end of the year. Events Pre-1600 681 – Pope Honorius I is posthumously excommunicated by the Sixth Ecumenical Council. 1400 – Owain Glyndŵr is declared Prince of Wales by his followers. 1601-1900 1620 – Pilgrims set sail from England on the Mayflower. 1701 – James Francis Edward Stuart, sometimes called the "Old Pretender", becomes the Jacobite claimant to the thrones of England and Scotland. 1732 – In Campo Maior, Portugal, a storm hits the Armory and a violent explosion ensues, killing two-thirds of its inhabitants. 1776 – American Revolutionary War: The Battle of Harlem Heights is fought. 1779 – American Revolutionary War: The Franco-American Siege of Savannah begins. 1810 – With the Grito de Dolores, Father Miguel Hidalgo begins Mexico's fight for independence from Spain. 1863 – Robert College, in Istanbul, the first American educational institution outside the United States, is founded by Christopher Robert, an American philanthropist. 1880 – The Cornell Daily Sun prints its first issue in Ithaca, New York. The Sun is the United States' oldest, continuously-independent college daily. 1893 – Settlers make a land run for prime land in the Cherokee Strip in Oklahoma. 1901-present 1908 – The General Motors Corporation is founded. 1914 – World War I: The Siege of Przemyśl (present-day Poland) begins. 1920 – The Wall Street bombing: A bomb in a horse wagon explodes in front of the J. P. Morgan building in New York City killing 38 and injuring 400. 1940 – World War II: Italian troops conquer Sidi Barrani. 1943 – World War II: The German Tenth Army reports that it can no longer contain the Allied bridgehead around Salerno. 1945 – World War II: The Japanese occupation of Hong Kong comes to an end. 1955 – The military coup to unseat President Juan Perón of Argentina is launched at midnight. 1955 – A Zulu-class submarine becomes the first to launch a ballistic missile. 1956 – TCN-9 Sydney is the first Australian television station to commence regular broadcasts. 1959 – The first successful photocopier, the Xerox 914, is introduced in a demonstration on live television from New York City. 1961 – The United States National Hurricane Research Project drops eight cylinders of silver iodide into the eyewall of Hurricane Esther. Wind speed reduces by 10%, giving rise to Project Stormfury. 1961 – Typhoon Nancy, with possibly the strongest winds ever measured in a tropical cyclone, makes landfall in Osaka, Japan, killing 173 people. 1961 – Pakistan establishes its Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission with Abdus Salam as its head. 1963 – Malaysia is formed from the Federation of Malaya, Singapore, North Borneo (Sabah) and Sarawak. However, Singapore is soon expelled from this new country. 1966 – The Metropolitan Opera House opens at Lincoln Center in New York City with the world premiere of Samuel Barber's opera Antony and Cleopatra. 1970 – King Hussein of Jordan declares war against the Palestine Liberation Organization, the conflict came to be known as Black September. 1975 – Papua New Guinea gains independence from Australia. 1975 – Cape Verde, Mozambique, and São Tomé and Príncipe join the United Nations. 1975 – The first prototype of the Mikoyan MiG-31 interceptor makes its maiden flight. 1976 – Armenian champion swimmer Shavarsh Karapetyan saves 20 people from a trolleybus that had fallen into a Yerevan reservoir. 1978 – The 7.4 Mw  Tabas earthquake affects the city of Tabas, Iran with a maximum Mercalli intensity of IX (Violent). At least 15,000 people are killed. 1979 – Eight people escape from East Germany to the west in a homemade hot air balloon. 1982 – Lebanon War: The Sabra and Shatila massacre in Lebanon takes place. 1987 – The Montreal Protocol is signed to protect the ozone layer from depletion. 1990 – The railroad between the People's Republic of China and Kazakhstan is completed at Dostyk, adding a sizable link to the concept of the Eurasian Land Bridge. 1992 – The trial of the deposed Panamanian dictator Manuel Noriega ends in the United States with a 40-year sentence for drug trafficking and money laundering. 1992 – Black Wednesday: The British pound is forced out of the European Exchange Rate Mechanism by currency speculators and is forced to devalue against the German mark. 1994 – The British government lifts the broadcasting ban imposed against members of Sinn Féin and Irish paramilitary groups in 1988. 2004 – Hurricane Ivan makes landfall in Gulf Shores, Alabama as a Category 3 hurricane. 2005 – The Camorra organized crime boss Paolo Di Lauro is arrested in Naples, Italy. 2007 – One-Two-GO Airlines Flight 269 carrying 128 crew and passengers crashes in Thailand killing 89 people. 2007 – Security guards working for Blackwater Worldwide shoot and kill 17 Iraqis in Nisour Square, Baghdad. 2013 – A gunman kills twelve people at the Washington Navy Yard. 2014 – The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant launches its Kobani offensive against Syrian–Kurdish forces. 2019 – Five months before the COVID-19 stock market crash, an overnight spike in lending rates in the United States prompts the Federal Reserve to conduct operations in the repo market. Holidays and observances Christian feast day: Andrew Kim Taegon (one of The Korean Martyrs) Curcodomus Cyprian (Catholic Church) Edith of Wilton Euphemia Ludmila Ninian Pope Cornelius September 16 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics). Day of Atonement / Yom Kippur is a moveable observance that occurs on the 10 of Tishrei, which is 16 September 2021. Cry of Dolores, celebrates the declaration of independence of Mexico from Spain in 1810. See Fiestas Patrias Independence Day (Papua New Guinea), celebrates the independence of Papua New Guinea from Australia in 1975. International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer[14] Malaysian Armed Forces Day (Malaysia) Malaysia Day (Malaysia, Singapore) Martyrs' Day (Libya) National Heroes Day (Saint Kitts and Nevis)
  17. September 15 is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar; 107 days remain until the end of the year. Events Pre-1600 994 – Major Fatimid victory over the Byzantine Empire at the Battle of the Orontes.[1] 1440 – Gilles de Rais, one of the earliest known serial killers, is taken into custody upon an accusation brought against him by Jean de Malestroit, Bishop of Nantes. 1530 – Appearance of the miraculous portrait of Saint Dominic in Soriano in Soriano Calabro, Calabria, Italy; commemorated as a feast day by the Roman Catholic Church 1644–1912. 1556 – Departing from Vlissingen, ex-Holy Roman Emperor Charles V returns to Spain. 1601-1900 1762 – Seven Years' War: Battle of Signal Hill.[2] 1776 – American Revolutionary War: British forces land at Kip's Bay during the New York Campaign.[3] 1789 – The United States "Department of Foreign Affairs", established by law in July, is renamed the Department of State and given a variety of domestic duties. 1794 – French Revolutionary Wars: Arthur Wellesley (later Duke of Wellington) sees his first combat at the Battle of Boxtel during the Flanders Campaign.[4] 1795 – Britain seizes the Dutch Cape Colony in southern Africa to prevent its use by the Batavian Republic. 1812 – The Grande Armée under Napoleon reaches the Kremlin in Moscow. 1812 – War of 1812: A second supply train sent to relieve Fort Harrison is ambushed in the Attack at the Narrows. 1816 – HMS Whiting runs aground on the Doom Bar. 1820 – Constitutionalist revolution in Lisbon, Portugal. 1821 – The Captaincy General of Guatemala declares independence from Spain. 1830 – The Liverpool to Manchester railway line opens; British MP William Huskisson becomes the first widely reported railway passenger fatality when he is struck and killed by the locomotive Rocket. 1835 – HMS Beagle, with Charles Darwin aboard, reaches the Galápagos Islands. The ship lands at Chatham or San Cristobal, the easternmost of the archipelago. 1862 – American Civil War: Confederate forces capture Harpers Ferry, Virginia (present-day Harpers Ferry, West Virginia). 1873 – Franco-Prussian War: The last Imperial German Army troops leave France upon completion of payment of indemnity. 1894 – First Sino-Japanese War: Japan defeats Qing dynasty China in the Battle of Pyongyang. 1901-present 1915 – The Empire Picture Theatre (now The New Empire Cinema), the oldest running cinema in mainland Australia, opens in Bowral, New South Wales. 1915 – New Culture Movement: Chen Duxiu establishes the New Youth magazine in Shanghai.[5] 1916 – World War I: Tanks are used for the first time in battle, at the Battle of the Somme. 1918 – World War I: Allied troops break through the Bulgarian defenses on the Macedonian front. 1935 – The Nuremberg Laws deprive German Jews of citizenship. 1935 – Nazi Germany adopts a new national flag bearing the swastika. 1940 – World War II: The climax of the Battle of Britain, when the Luftwaffe launches its largest and most concentrated attack of the entire campaign. 1942 – World War II: U.S. Navy aircraft carrier USS Wasp is sunk by Japanese torpedoes at Guadalcanal. 1944 – Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill meet in Quebec as part of the Octagon Conference to discuss strategy. 1944 – Battle of Peleliu begins as the United States Marine Corps' 1st Marine Division and the United States Army's 81st Infantry Division hit White and Orange beaches under heavy fire from Japanese infantry and artillery. 1945 – A hurricane strikes southern Florida and the Bahamas, destroying 366 airplanes and 25 blimps at Naval Air Station Richmond. 1947 – Typhoon Kathleen hit the Kantō region in Japan killing 1,077. 1948 – The Indian Army captures the towns of Jalna, Latur, Mominabad, Surriapet and Narkatpalli as part of Operation Polo. 1948 – The F-86 Sabre sets the world aircraft speed record at 671 miles per hour (1,080 km/h). 1950 – Korean War: The U.S. X Corps lands at Inchon. 1952 – The United Nations cedes Eritrea to Ethiopia. 1958 – A Central Railroad of New Jersey commuter train runs through an open drawbridge at the Newark Bay, killing 48. 1959 – Nikita Khrushchev becomes the first Soviet leader to visit the United States. 1962 – The Soviet ship Poltava heads toward Cuba, one of the events that sets into motion the Cuban Missile Crisis. 1963 – Baptist Church bombing: Four children killed in the bombing of an African-American church in Birmingham, Alabama, United States. 1967 – U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson, responding to a sniper attack at the University of Texas at Austin, writes a letter to Congress urging the enactment of gun control legislation. 1968 – The Soviet Zond 5 spaceship is launched, becoming the first spacecraft to fly around the Moon and re-enter the Earth's atmosphere. 1971 – The first Greenpeace ship departs from Vancouver to protest against the upcoming Cannikin nuclear weapon test in Alaska. 1972 – A Scandinavian Airlines System domestic flight from Gothenburg to Stockholm is hijacked and flown to Malmö Bulltofta Airport. 1974 – Air Vietnam Flight 706 is hijacked, then crashes while attempting to land with 75 on board. 1975 – The French department of "Corse" (the entire island of Corsica) is divided into two: Haute-Corse (Upper Corsica) and Corse-du-Sud (Southern Corsica). 1978 – Muhammad Ali outpointed Leon Spinks in a rematch to become the first boxer to win the world heavyweight title three times at the Superdome in New Orleans. 1981 – The Senate Judiciary Committee unanimously approves Sandra Day O'Connor to become the first female justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. 1981 – The John Bull becomes the oldest operable steam locomotive in the world when the Smithsonian Institution operates it under its own power outside Washington, D.C. 1983 – Israeli premier Menachem Begin resigns. 2000 – The Summer Olympics, officially known as the games of the XXVII Olympiad, are opened in Sydney, Australia. 2004 – National Hockey League commissioner Gary Bettman announces lockout of the players' union and cessation of operations by the NHL head office. 2008 – Lehman Brothers files for Chapter 11 bankruptcy, the largest bankruptcy filing in U.S. history. 2017 – The Parsons Green bombing takes place in London. 2020 – Signing of the Bahrain–Israel normalization agreement occurs in Washington, D.C., normalizing relations between Israel and two Arab nations, the United Arab Emirates and Bahrain. Holidays and observances Battle of Britain Day (United Kingdom) Christian feast day: Joseph Abibos Alpinus (Albinus) of Lyon Aprus (Èvre) of Toul Catherine of Genoa James Chisholm (Episcopal Church) Saint Dominic in Soriano (formerly) Mamilian of Palermo Mirin Nicetas the Goth Nicomedes Our Lady of Sorrows September 15 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics). Cry of Dolores, celebrated on the eve of Independence Day (Mexico). Earliest day on which Father's Day can fall, while September 21 is the latest; celebrated on the third Sunday in September. (Ukraine) Earliest day on which German-American Steuben Parade can fall, while September 21 is the latest; celebrated on the third Saturday in September. (United States, especially New York City) Earliest day on which POW/MIA Recognition Day can fall, while September 21 is the latest; celebrated on the third Friday in September. (United States) Earliest day on which Prinsjesdag can fall, while September 21 is the latest; celebrated on the third Tuesday in September. (Netherlands) Earliest day on which Respect for the Aged Day can fall, while September 21 is the latest; celebrated on the third Monday in September. (Japan) Engineer's Day (India) Independence Day, celebrates the independence from Spain in 1821 of Guatemala (a Patriotic Day), El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica. International Day of Democracy[36] Knowledge Day (Azerbaijan) Restoration of Primorska to the Motherland Day (Slovenia) Silpa Bhirasri Day (Thailand). The beginning of German American Heritage Month, celebrated until October 15 [37] The beginning of National Hispanic Heritage Month, celebrated until October 15 (United States) World Lymphoma Awareness Day (International)
  18. September 14 is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar; 108 days remain until the end of the year. Events Pre-1600 AD 81 – Domitian becomes Emperor of the Roman Empire upon the death of his brother Titus. 629 – Emperor Heraclius enters Constantinople in triumph after his victory over the Persian Empire. 786 – "Night of the three Caliphs": Harun al-Rashid becomes the Abbasid caliph upon the death of his brother al-Hadi. Birth of Harun's son al-Ma'mun.[1] 919 – Battle of Islandbridge: High King Niall Glúndub is killed while leading an Irish coalition against the Vikings of Uí Ímair, led by King Sitric Cáech. 1180 – Genpei War: Battle of Ishibashiyama in Japan. 1226 – The first recorded instance of the Catholic practice of perpetual Eucharistic adoration formally begins in Avignon, France.[2] 1402 – Battle of Homildon Hill results in an English victory over Scotland. 1601-1900 1607 – Flight of the Earls from Lough Swilly, Donegal, Ireland.[3] 1682 – Bishop Gore School, one of the oldest schools in Wales, is founded. 1723 – Grand Master António Manoel de Vilhena lays down the first stone of Fort Manoel in Malta. 1741 – George Frideric Handel completes his oratorio Messiah. 1752 – The British Empire adopts the Gregorian calendar, skipping eleven days (the previous day was September 2). 1763 – Seneca warriors defeat British forces at the Battle of Devil's Hole during Pontiac's War. 1782 – American Revolutionary War: Review of the French troops under General Rochambeau by General George Washington at Verplanck's Point, New York. 1791 – The Papal States lose Avignon to Revolutionary France. 1808 – Finnish War: Russians defeat the Swedes at the Battle of Oravais. 1812 – Napoleonic Wars: The French Grande Armée enters Moscow. The Fire of Moscow begins as soon as Russian troops leave the city. 1814 – Battle of Baltimore: The poem Defence of Fort McHenry is written by Francis Scott Key. The poem is later used as the lyrics of The Star-Spangled Banner. 1829 – The Ottoman Empire signs the Treaty of Adrianople with Russia, thus ending the Russo-Turkish War. 1846 – Jang Bahadur and his brothers massacre about 40 members of the Nepalese palace court. 1862 – American Civil War: The Battle of South Mountain, part of the Maryland Campaign, is fought. 1901-present 1901 – U.S. President William McKinley dies after being mortally wounded on September 6 by anarchist Leon Czolgosz and is succeeded by Vice President Theodore Roosevelt. 1911 – Russian Premier Pyotr Stolypin is shot by Dmitry Bogrov while attending a performance of Rimsky-Korsakov's The Tale of Tsar Saltan at the Kiev Opera House, in the presence of Tsar Nicholas II.[4] 1914 – HMAS AE1, the Royal Australian Navy's first submarine, is lost at sea with all hands near East New Britain, Papua New Guinea. 1917 – The Russian Empire is formally replaced by the Russian Republic. 1936 – Raoul Villain, who assassinated the French Socialist Jean Jaurès, is himself killed by Spanish Republicans in Ibiza. 1939 – World War II: The Estonian military boards the Polish submarine ORP Orzeł in Tallinn, sparking a diplomatic incident that the Soviet Union will later use to justify the annexation of Estonia. 1940 – Ip massacre: The Hungarian Army, supported by local Hungarians, kill 158 Romanian civilians in Ip, Sălaj, a village in Northern Transylvania, an act of ethnic cleansing. 1943 – World War II: The Wehrmacht starts a three-day retaliatory operation targeting several Greek villages in the region of Viannos, whose death toll would eventually exceed 500 persons. 1944 – World War II: Maastricht becomes the first Dutch city to be liberated by allied forces. 1948 – The Indian Army captures the city of Aurangabad as part of Operation Polo. 1954 – In a top secret nuclear test, a Soviet Tu-4 bomber drops a 40 kiloton atomic weapon just north of Totskoye village. 1958 – The first two German post-war rockets, designed by the German engineer Ernst Mohr, reach the upper atmosphere. 1959 – The Soviet probe Luna 2 crashes onto the Moon, becoming the first man-made object to reach it. 1960 – The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is founded. 1960 – Congo Crisis: Mobutu Sese Seko seizes power in a military coup, suspending parliament and the constitution. 1975 – The first American saint, Elizabeth Ann Seton, is canonized by Pope Paul VI. 1979 – Afghan leader Nur Muhammad Taraki is assassinated upon the order of Hafizullah Amin, who becomes the new General Secretary of the People's Democratic Party. 1982 – President-elect of Lebanon Bachir Gemayel is assassinated. 1984 – Joe Kittinger becomes the first person to fly a gas balloon alone across the Atlantic Ocean. 1985 – Penang Bridge, the longest bridge in Malaysia, connecting the island of Penang to the mainland, opens to traffic. 1989 – The Standard Gravure shooting where Joseph T. Wesbecker, a 47-year-old pressman, killed eight people and injured 12 people at his former workplace, Standard Gravure, before committing suicide. 1992 – The Constitutional Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina declares the breakaway Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia to be illegal. 1993 – Lufthansa Flight 2904, an Airbus A320, crashes into an embankment after overshooting the runway at Okęcie International Airport (now Warsaw Chopin Airport), killing two people.[5] 1994 – The Major League Baseball season is canceled because of a strike. 1997 – Eighty-one killed as five bogies of the Ahmedabad–Howrah Express plunge into a river in Bilaspur district of Madhya Pradesh, India. 1998 – Telecommunications companies MCI Communications and WorldCom complete their $37 billion merger to form MCI WorldCom. 1999 – Kiribati, Nauru and Tonga join the United Nations. 2000 – Microsoft releases Windows Me. 2001 – Historic National Prayer Service held at Washington National Cathedral for victims of the September 11 attacks. A similar service is held in Canada on Parliament Hill, the largest vigil ever held in the nation's capital. 2003 – In a referendum, Estonia approves joining the European Union. 2007 – Financial crisis of 2007–2008: The Northern Rock bank experiences the first bank run in the United Kingdom in 150 years. 2015 – The first observation of gravitational waves is made, announced by the LIGO and Virgo collaborations on 11 February 2016. 2019 – Yemen's Houthi rebels claim responsibility for an attack on Saudi Arabian oil facilities. Holidays and observances Christian feast day: Aelia Flaccilla (Eastern Orthodox Church) Cormac mac Cuilennáin (or of Cashel) Crescentius of Rome Feast of the Cross (Christianity) Elevation of the Holy Cross (Eastern Orthodox) Formerly, the Wednesday, Friday and Saturday following 14 September were observed as one of the four sets of Ember days. In the Irish calendar they were known as Quarter tense. (Roman Catholic and Anglican Churches) Lord of Miracles of Buga Louis Gabriel Taurin Dufresse (one of Martyr Saints of China) Maternus of Cologne Notburga September 14 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) Engineer's Day (Romania) Hindi Day (Hindi-speaking states of India) Mobilized Servicemen Day (Ukraine) San Jacinto Day (Nicaragua)
  19. September 13 is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar; 109 days remain until the end of the year. Events Pre-1600 585 BC – Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, king of Rome, celebrates a triumph for his victories over the Sabines, and the surrender of Collatia. 509 BC – The Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus on Rome's Capitoline Hill is dedicated on the ides of September. 379 – Yax Nuun Ahiin I is crowned as 15th Ajaw of Tikal 533 – Belisarius of the Byzantine Empire defeats Gelimer and the Vandals at the Battle of Ad Decimum, near Carthage, North Africa. 1229 – Ögedei Khan is proclaimed Khagan of the Mongol Empire in Kodoe Aral, Khentii: Mongolia. 1437 – Battle of Tangier: a Portuguese expeditionary force initiates a failed attempt to seize the Moroccan citadel of Tangier. 1501 – Italian Renaissance: Michelangelo begins work on his statue of David. 1504 – Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand issue a Royal Warrant for the construction of a Royal Chapel (Capilla Real) to be built. 1541 – After three years of exile, John Calvin returns to Geneva to reform the church under a body of doctrine known as Calvinism. 1584 – San Lorenzo del Escorial Palace in Madrid is finished. 1601-1900 1609 – Henry Hudson reaches the river that would later be named after him – the Hudson River. 1645 – Wars of the Three Kingdoms: Scottish Royalists are defeated by Covenanters at the Battle of Philiphaugh. 1743 – Great Britain, Austria and the Kingdom of Sardinia sign the Treaty of Worms. 1759 – Battle of the Plains of Abraham: the British defeat the French near Quebec City in the Seven Years' War, known in the United States as the French and Indian War. 1782 – American Revolutionary War: Franco-Spanish troops launch the unsuccessful "grand assault" during the Great Siege of Gibraltar. 1788 – The Philadelphia Convention sets the date for the first presidential election in the United States, and New York City becomes the country's temporary capital. 1791 – King Louis XVI of France accepts the new constitution. 1808 – Finnish War: In the Battle of Jutas, Swedish forces under Lieutenant General Georg Carl von Döbeln beat the Russians, making von Döbeln a Swedish war hero. 1812 – War of 1812: A supply wagon sent to relieve Fort Harrison is ambushed in the Attack at the Narrows. 1814 – In a turning point in the War of 1812, the British fail to capture Baltimore. During the battle, Francis Scott Key composes his poem "Defence of Fort McHenry", which is later set to music and becomes the United States' national anthem. 1843 – The Greek Army rebels (OS date: September 3) against the autocratic rule of king Otto of Greece, demanding the granting of a constitution. 1847 – Mexican–American War: Six teenage military cadets known as Niños Héroes die defending Chapultepec Castle in the Battle of Chapultepec. American troops under General Winfield Scott capture Mexico City in the Mexican–American War. 1848 – Vermont railroad worker Phineas Gage survives an iron rod 1+1⁄4 inches (3.2 cm) in diameter being driven through his brain; the reported effects on his behavior and personality stimulate discussion of the nature of the brain and its functions. 1862 – American Civil War: Union soldiers find a copy of Robert E. Lee's battle plans in a field outside Frederick, Maryland. It is the prelude to the Battle of Antietam. 1882 – Anglo-Egyptian War: The Battle of Tel el-Kebir is fought. 1898 – Hannibal Goodwin patents celluloid photographic film. 1899 – Henry Bliss is the first person in the United States to be killed in an automobile accident. 1899 – Mackinder, Ollier and Brocherel make the first ascent of Batian (5,199 m – 17,058 ft), the highest peak of Mount Kenya. 1900 – Filipino insurgents defeat a small American column in the Battle of Pulang Lupa, during the Philippine–American War. 1901-present 1906 – The Santos-Dumont 14-bis makes a short hop, the first flight of a fixed-wing aircraft in Europe. 1914 – World War I: The Battle of Aisne begins between Germany and France. 1922 – The final act of the Greco-Turkish War, the Great Fire of Smyrna, commences. 1923 – Following a military coup in Spain, Miguel Primo de Rivera takes over, setting up a dictatorship. 1933 – Elizabeth McCombs becomes the first woman elected to the New Zealand Parliament. 1942 – World War II: Second day of the Battle of Edson's Ridge in the Guadalcanal Campaign. U.S. Marines successfully defeated attacks by the Japanese with heavy losses for the Japanese forces. 1944 – World War II: Start of the Battle of Meligalas between the Greek Resistance forces of the Greek People's Liberation Army (ELAS) and the collaborationist security battalions. 1948 – Deputy Prime Minister of India Vallabhbhai Patel orders the Army to move into Hyderabad to integrate it with the Indian Union. 1948 – Margaret Chase Smith is elected United States senator, and becomes the first woman to serve in both the U.S. House of Representatives and the United States Senate. 1953 – Nikita Khrushchev is appointed General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. 1956 – The IBM 305 RAMAC is introduced, the first commercial computer to use disk storage.[1] 1956 – The dike around the Dutch polder East Flevoland is closed. 1962 – An appeals court orders the University of Mississippi to admit James Meredith, the first African-American student admitted to the segregated university. 1964 – South Vietnamese Generals Lâm Văn Phát and Dương Văn Đức fail in a coup attempt against General Nguyễn Khánh. 1964 – Martin Luther King Jr. addresses a crowd of 20,000 West Berliners on Sunday, in Waldbühne.[2] 1968 – Cold War: Albania leaves the Warsaw Pact. 1971 – State police and National Guardsmen storm New York's Attica Prison to quell a prison revolt, which claimed 43 lives.[3] 1971 – Chairman Mao Zedong's second in command and successor Marshal Lin Biao flees China after the failure of an alleged coup. His plane crashes in Mongolia, killing all aboard. 1977 – General Motors introduces Diesel engine, with Oldsmobile Diesel engine, in the Delta 88, Oldsmobile 98, and Oldsmobile Custom Cruiser models amongst others.[4] 1979 – South Africa grants independence to the "homeland" of Venda (not recognised outside South Africa). 1982 – Spantax Flight 995 crashes at Málaga Airport during a rejected takeoff, killing 50 of the 394 people on board.[5] 1985 – Super Mario Bros. is released in Japan for the NES, which starts the Super Mario series of platforming games. 1987 – Goiânia accident: A radioactive object is stolen from an abandoned hospital in Goiânia, Brazil, contaminating many people in the following weeks and causing some to die from radiation poisoning. 1988 – Hurricane Gilbert is the strongest recorded hurricane in the Western Hemisphere, later replaced by Hurricane Wilma in 2005 (based on barometric pressure). 1989 – Largest anti-Apartheid march in South Africa, led by Desmond Tutu. 1993 – Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin shakes hands with Palestine Liberation Organization chairman Yasser Arafat at the White House after signing the Oslo Accords granting limited Palestinian autonomy. 1997 – A German Air Force Tupolev Tu-154 and a United States Air Force Lockheed C-141 Starlifter collide in mid-air near Namibia, killing 33.[6] 2001 – Civilian aircraft traffic resumes in the United States after the September 11 attacks. 2007 – The Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples is adopted by the United Nations General Assembly. 2007 – The McLaren F1 team were found guilty of possessing confidential information from the Ferrari team, and were fined $100 million and were excluded from the constructors' championship standings.[7] 2008 – Delhi, India, is hit by a series of bomb blasts, resulting in 30 deaths and 130 injuries. 2008 – Hurricane Ike makes landfall on the Texas Gulf Coast of the United States, causing heavy damage to Galveston Island, Houston, and surrounding areas. 2013 – Taliban insurgents attack the United States consulate in Herat, Afghanistan, with two members of the Afghan National Police reported dead and about 20 civilians injured. 2018 – The Merrimack Valley gas explosions: One person is killed, 25 are injured, and 40 homes are destroyed when excessive natural gas pressure caused fires and explosions. Holidays and observances Christian feast day: Feast of the Cross (Assyrian Church of the East) Aimé (Amatus) Ame Eulogius of Alexandria John Chrysostom Marcellinus of Carthage Maurilius (Maurille) of Angers Nectarius of Autun Venerius the Hermit Wulfthryth (Wilfrida) of Wilton September 13 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics). Day of the Programmer, during a non-leap year. (International) Día de los Niños Héroes (Mexico) Engineer's Day (Mauritius) Roald Dahl Day (Africa, United Kingdom, Latin America) Super Mario Bros. 35th Anniversary
  20. September 12 is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar; 110 days remain until the end of the year. Events Pre-1600 490 BC – Battle of Marathon: The conventionally accepted date for the Battle of Marathon. The Athenians and their Plataean allies defeat the first Persian invasion force of Greece.[1] 372 – Sixteen Kingdoms: Jin Xiaowudi, age 10, succeeds his father Jin Jianwendi as Emperor of the Eastern Jin dynasty. 1213 – Albigensian Crusade: Simon de Montfort, 5th Earl of Leicester, defeats Peter II of Aragon at the Battle of Muret. 1229 – Battle of Portopí: The Aragonese army under the command of James I of Aragon disembarks at Santa Ponça, Majorca, with the purpose of conquering the island. 1309 – The First Siege of Gibraltar takes place in the context of the Spanish Reconquista pitting the forces of the Kingdom of Castile against the Emirate of Granada resulting in a Castilian victory. 1601-1900 1609 – Henry Hudson begins his exploration of the Hudson River while aboard the Halve Maen. 1634 – A gunpowder factory explodes in Valletta, Malta, killing 22 people and damaging several buildings. 1683 – Austro-Ottoman War: Battle of Vienna: Several European armies join forces to defeat the Ottoman Empire. 1762 – The Sultanate of Sulu ceded Balambangan Island to the British East India Company 1814 – Battle of North Point: an American detachment halts the British land advance to Baltimore in the War of 1812. 1846 – Elizabeth Barrett elopes with Robert Browning. 1847 – Mexican–American War: the Battle of Chapultepec begins. 1848 – A new constitution marks the establishment of Switzerland as a federal state. 1857 – The SS Central America sinks about 160 miles east of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, drowning a total of 426 passengers and crew, including Captain William Lewis Herndon. The ship was carrying 13–15 tons of gold from the California Gold Rush. 1885 – Arbroath 36–0 Bon Accord, a world record scoreline in professional Association football. 1890 – Salisbury, Rhodesia, is founded. 1897 – Tirah Campaign: In the Battle of Saragarhi, ten thousand Pashtun tribesmen suffer several hundred casualties while attacking 21 Sikh soldiers in British service. 1901-present 1906 – The Newport Transporter Bridge is opened in Newport, South Wales by Viscount Tredegar. 1910 – Premiere performance of Gustav Mahler's Symphony No. 8 in Munich (with a chorus of 852 singers and an orchestra of 171 players. Mahler's rehearsal assistant conductor was Bruno Walter). 1915 – French soldiers rescue over 4,000 Armenian genocide survivors stranded on Musa Dagh. 1923 – Southern Rhodesia, today called Zimbabwe, is annexed by the United Kingdom. 1933 – Leó Szilárd, waiting for a red light on Southampton Row in Bloomsbury, conceives the idea of the nuclear chain reaction. 1938 – Adolf Hitler demands autonomy and self-determination for the Germans of the Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia. 1940 – Cave paintings are discovered in Lascaux, France. 1940 – The Hercules Powder Plant Disaster in the United States kills 51 people and injures over 200. 1942 – World War II: RMS Laconia, carrying civilians, Allied soldiers and Italian POWs is torpedoed off the coast of West Africa and sinks with a heavy loss of life. 1942 – World War II: First day of the Battle of Edson's Ridge during the Guadalcanal Campaign. U.S. Marines protecting Henderson Field are attacked by Japanese troops. 1943 – World War II: Benito Mussolini is rescued from house arrest by German commando forces led by Otto Skorzeny. 1944 – World War II: The liberation of Yugoslavia from Axis occupation continues. Bajina Bašta in western Serbia is among the liberated cities. 1945 – The People's Republic of Korea is proclaimed, bringing an end to Japanese rule over Korea.[2] 1948 – Marshal Lin Biao, commander-in-chief of the Chinese communist Northeast Field Army, launched a massive offensive toward Jinzhou, Liaoshen Campaign has begun. 1953 – U.S. Senator and future President John Fitzgerald Kennedy marries Jacqueline Lee Bouvier at St. Mary's Church in Newport, Rhode Island. 1958 – Jack Kilby demonstrates the first working integrated circuit while working at Texas Instruments. 1959 – The Soviet Union launches a large rocket, Lunik II, at the Moon. 1959 – Bonanza premieres, the first regularly scheduled TV program presented in color. 1961 – The African and Malagasy Union is founded. 1962 – President Kennedy delivers his "We choose to go to the Moon" speech at Rice University. 1966 – Gemini 11, the penultimate mission of NASA's Gemini program, and the current human altitude record holder (except for the Apollo lunar missions). 1970 – Dawson's Field hijackings: Palestinian terrorists blow up three hijacked airliners in Jordan, continuing to hold the passengers hostage in various undisclosed locations in Amman. 1974 – Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia, 'Messiah' of the Rastafari movement, is deposed following a military coup by the Derg, ending a reign of 58 years. 1977 – South African anti-apartheid activist Steve Biko dies in police custody. 1980 – Military coup in Turkey. 1983 – A Wells Fargo depot in West Hartford, Connecticut, United States, is robbed of approximately US$7 million by Los Macheteros. 1983 – The USSR vetoes a United Nations Security Council Resolution deploring the Soviet destruction of Korean Air Lines Flight 007. 1984 – Dwight Gooden sets the baseball record for strikeouts in a season by a rookie with 276, previously set by Herb Score with 246 in 1954. Gooden's 276 strikeouts that season, pitched in 218 innings, set the current record. 1988 – Hurricane Gilbert devastates Jamaica; it turns towards Mexico's Yucatán Peninsula two days later, causing an estimated $5 billion in damage. 1990 – The two German states and the Four Powers sign the Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany in Moscow, paving the way for German reunification. 1990 – The Red Cross organizations of mainland China and Taiwan sign Kinmen Agreement on repatriation of illegal immigrants and criminal suspects after two days of talks in Kinmen, Fujian Province in response to the two tragedies in repatriation in the previous two months. It is the first agreement reached by private organizations across the Taiwan Strait.[3] 1992 – NASA launches Space Shuttle Endeavour on STS-47 which marked the 50th shuttle mission. On board are Mae Carol Jemison, the first African-American woman in space, Mamoru Mohri, the first Japanese citizen to fly in a US spaceship, and Mark Lee and Jan Davis, the first married couple in space. 1992 – Abimael Guzmán, leader of the Shining Path, is captured by Peruvian special forces; shortly thereafter the rest of Shining Path's leadership fell as well. 1994 – Frank Eugene Corder fatally crashes a single-engine Cessna 150 into the White House's south lawn, striking the West wing. There were no other casualties. 2001 – Ansett Australia, Australia's first commercial interstate airline, collapses due to increased strain on the international airline industry, leaving 10,000 people unemployed. 2003 – The United Nations lifts sanctions against Libya after that country agreed to accept responsibility and recompense the families of victims in the 1988 bombing of Pan Am Flight 103. 2003 – Iraq War: In Fallujah, U.S. forces mistakenly shoot and kill eight Iraqi police officers. 2005 – Israeli-Palestinian conflict: the Israeli disengagement from Gaza is completed, leaving some 2,530 homes demolished.[4] 2007 – Former Philippine President Joseph Estrada is convicted of plunder. 2008 – The 2008 Chatsworth train collision in Los Angeles between a Metrolink commuter train and a Union Pacific freight train kills 25 people. 2011 – The National September 11 Memorial & Museum in New York City opens to the public. 2015 – A series of explosions involving propane triggering nearby illegally stored mining detonators in the Indian town of Petlawad in the state of Madhya Pradesh kills at least 105 people with over 150 injured. Holidays and observances Christian feast day: Ailbe (Elvis, Eilfyw) of Emly Ebontius Guy of Anderlecht The Most Holy Name of the Blessed Virgin Mary John Henry Hobart (Episcopal Church (USA)) Laisrén mac Nad Froích Sacerdos of Lyon September 12 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) Commemoration of the mass hanging of the Saint Patrick's Battalion (Mexico) Day of Conception (Russia) Defenders Day (Maryland, United States) Earliest date on which Programmers' Day can fall, while September 13 is the latest; celebrated on the 256th day of the year (Russia and programmers around the world. It falls on this date during leap years) Enkutatash falls on this day if it is a leap year. Celebrated on the first day of Mäskäräm. (Ethiopia, Eritrea, Rastafari) Nayrouz (Coptic Orthodox Church) (leap years only, September 11 on normal years) National Day (Cape Verde) National Day of Encouragement (United States) Saragarhi Day (Sikhism) United Nations Day for South-South Cooperation (International)
  21. September 11 is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar; 111 days remain until the end of the year. Events Pre-1600 9 – Battle of the Teutoburg Forest ends, where the Roman Empire suffers the greatest defeat of its history and the Rhine being established as the border between the Empire and the so-called barbarians for the next four hundred years.[1] 1185 – Isaac II Angelos kills Stephen Hagiochristophorites and then appeals to the people, resulting in the revolt that deposes Andronikos I Komnenos and places Isaac on the throne of the Byzantine Empire. 1226 – The first recorded instance of the Catholic practice of perpetual Eucharistic adoration formally begins in Avignon, France. 1297 – Battle of Stirling Bridge: Scots jointly led by William Wallace and Andrew Moray defeat the English.[2] 1390 – Lithuanian Civil War (1389–92): The Teutonic Knights begin a five-week siege of Vilnius. 1541 – Santiago, Chile, is besieged by indigenous warriors, led by Michimalonco, to free eight indigenous chiefs held captive by the Spaniards. However, the Spaniards decapitated them and rolled their heads on the main square, horrifying the indigenous warriors, and subsequently ending the attack. 1565 – Ottoman forces retreat from Malta ending the Great Siege of Malta. 1601–1900 1609 – Henry Hudson discovers Manhattan Island and the indigenous people living there. 1649 – Siege of Drogheda ends: Oliver Cromwell's Parliamentarian troops take the town and execute its garrison. 1683 – Battle of Vienna: Coalition forces, including the famous winged Hussars, led by Polish King John III Sobieski lift the siege laid by Ottoman forces. 1697 – Battle of Zenta: a major engagement in the Great Turkish War (1683–1699) and one of the most decisive defeats in Ottoman history. 1708 – Charles XII of Sweden stops his march to conquer Moscow outside Smolensk, marking the turning point in the Great Northern War. The army is defeated nine months later in the Battle of Poltava, and the Swedish Empire ceases to be a major power. 1709 – Battle of Malplaquet: Great Britain, Netherlands, and Austria fight against France. 1714 – Siege of Barcelona: Barcelona, capital city of Catalonia, surrenders to Spanish and French Bourbon armies in the War of the Spanish Succession. 1758 – Battle of Saint Cast: France repels British invasion during the Seven Years' War. 1775 – Benedict Arnold's expedition to Quebec leaves Cambridge, Massachusetts. 1776 – British–American peace conference on Staten Island fails to stop nascent American Revolutionary War. 1777 – American Revolutionary War: Battle of Brandywine: The British celebrate a major victory in Chester County, Pennsylvania. 1780 – American Revolutionary War: Sugarloaf Massacre: A small detachment of militia from Northampton County are attacked by Native Americans and Loyalists near Little Nescopeck Creek. 1786 – The beginning of the Annapolis Convention. 1789 – Alexander Hamilton is appointed the first United States Secretary of the Treasury. 1792 – The Hope Diamond is stolen along with other French crown jewels when six men break into the house where they are stored. 1800 – The Maltese National Congress Battalions are disbanded by British Civil Commissioner Alexander Ball. 1802 – France annexes the Kingdom of Piedmont. 1803 – Battle of Delhi, during the Second Anglo-Maratha War, between British troops under General Lake, and Marathas of Scindia's army under General Louis Bourquin. 1813 – War of 1812: British troops arrive in Mount Vernon and prepare to march to and invade Washington, D.C. 1814 – War of 1812: The climax of the Battle of Plattsburgh, a major United States victory in the war. 1826 – Captain William Morgan, an ex-freemason is arrested in Batavia, New York for debt after declaring that he would publish The Mysteries of Free Masonry, a book against Freemasonry. This sets into motion the events that led to his mysterious disappearance. 1829 – An expedition led by Isidro Barradas at Tampico, sent by the Spanish crown to retake Mexico, surrenders at the Battle of Tampico, marking the effective end of Mexico's campaign for independence. 1830 – Anti-Masonic Party convention; one of the first American political party conventions. 1836 – The Riograndense Republic is proclaimed by rebels after defeating Empire of Brazil's troops in the Battle of Seival, during the Ragamuffin War. 1851 – Christiana Resistance: Escaped slaves led by William Parker fight off and kill a slave owner who, with a federal marshal and an armed party, sought to seize three of his former slaves in Christiana, Pennsylvania, thereby creating a cause célèbre between slavery proponents and abolitionists. 1852 – Outbreak of Revolution of September 11 resulting in the State of Buenos Aires declaring independence as a Republic. 1857 – The Mountain Meadows massacre: Mormon settlers and Paiutes massacre 120 pioneers at Mountain Meadows, Utah. 1897 – After months of pursuit, generals of Menelik II of Ethiopia capture Gaki Sherocho, the last king of the Kaffa. Holidays and observances Battle of Tendra Day (Russia) Christian feast days: Blessed Francesco Bonifacio Deiniol Felix, Regula, and Exuperantius Harry Burleigh (Episcopal Church) John Gabriel Perboyre (one of Martyr Saints of China) Leudinus (Bobo) Our Lady of Coromoto Paphnutius of Thebes (Roman Catholic Church) Patiens of Lyon Protus and Hyacinth Sperandia Theodora of Alexandria September 11 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) Death Anniversary of Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah (Pakistan) Emergency Number Day (United States) Enkutatash falls on this day if it is not a leap year. Celebrated on the first day of Mäskäräm. (Ethiopia, Eritrea, Rastafari) National Day (Catalonia) Nayrouz (Coptic Orthodox Church), September 12 on leap years. September 11 attacks-related observances (United States😞 National Day of Service and Remembrance Patriot Day Teachers' Day (Argentina)
  22. September 10 is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar; 112 days remain until the end of the year. Events Pre-1600 506 – The bishops of Visigothic Gaul meet in the Council of Agde. 1419 – John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy is assassinated by adherents of the Dauphin, the future Charles VII of France. 1509 – An earthquake known as "The Lesser Judgment Day" hits Constantinople. 1515 – Thomas Wolsey is invested as a Cardinal. 1547 – The Battle of Pinkie, the last full-scale military confrontation between England and Scotland, resulting in a decisive victory for the forces of Edward VI. 1561 – Fourth Battle of Kawanakajima: Takeda Shingen defeats Uesugi Kenshin in the climax of their ongoing conflicts. 1570 – Spanish Jesuit missionaries land in present-day Virginia to establish the short-lived Ajacán Mission. 1573 – German pirate Klein Henszlein and 33 of his crew beheaded in Hamburg.[1] 1601-1900 1608 – John Smith is elected council president of Jamestown, Virginia. 1776 – American Revolutionary War: Nathan Hale volunteers to spy for the Continental Army. 1798 – At the Battle of St. George's Caye, British Honduras defeats Spain. 1813 – The United States defeats a British Fleet at the Battle of Lake Erie during the War of 1812. 1846 – Elias Howe is granted a patent for the sewing machine. 1858 – George Mary Searle discovers the asteroid 55 Pandora. 1897 – Lattimer massacre: A sheriff's posse kills 19 unarmed striking immigrant miners in Lattimer, Pennsylvania, United States. 1898 – Empress Elisabeth of Austria is assassinated by Luigi Lucheni. 1901-present 1918 – Russian Civil War: The Red Army captures Kazan. 1919 – The Republic of German-Austria signs the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, ceding significant territories to Italy, Yugoslavia, and Czechoslovakia. 1932 – The New York City Subway's third competing subway system, the municipally-owned IND, is opened. 1936 – First World Individual Motorcycle Speedway Championship, Held at London's (England) Wembley Stadium 1937 – Nine nations attend the Nyon Conference to address international piracy in the Mediterranean Sea. 1939 – World War II: The submarine HMS Oxley is mistakenly sunk by the submarine HMS Triton near Norway and becomes the Royal Navy's first loss of a submarine in the war. 1939 – World War II: The Canadian declaration of war on Germany receives royal assent. 1942 – World War II: The British Army carries out an amphibious landing on Madagascar to re-launch Allied offensive operations in the Madagascar Campaign. 1943 – World War II: In the course of Operation Achse, German troops begin their occupation of Rome. 1960 – At the Summer Olympics in Rome, Abebe Bikila becomes the first sub-Saharan African to win a gold medal, winning the marathon in bare feet. 1961 – In the Italian Grand Prix, a crash causes the death of German Formula One driver Wolfgang von Trips and 13 spectators who are hit by his Ferrari, the deadliest accident in F1 history. 1967 – The people of Gibraltar vote to remain a British dependency rather than becoming part of Spain. 1974 – Guinea-Bissau gains independence from Portugal. 1976 – A British Airways Hawker Siddeley Trident and an Inex-Adria DC-9 collide near Zagreb, Yugoslavia, killing 176. 1977 – Hamida Djandoubi, convicted of torture and murder, is the last person to be executed by guillotine in France. 2000 – Operation Barras successfully frees six British soldiers held captive for over two weeks and contributes to the end of the Sierra Leone Civil War. 2001 – Antônio da Costa Santos, mayor of Campinas, Brazil is assassinated. 2001 – During his appearance on the British TV game show Who Wants to be a Millionaire?, contestant Charles Ingram reaches the £1 million top prize, but it was later revealed that he had cheated to the top prize by listening to coughs from his wife and another contestant.[2][3] 2002 – Switzerland, traditionally a neutral country, becomes a full member of the United Nations. 2007 – Former Prime Minister of Pakistan Nawaz Sharif returns to Pakistan after seven years in exile, following a military coup in October 1999. 2008 – The Large Hadron Collider at CERN, described as the biggest scientific experiment in history, is powered up in Geneva, Switzerland. 2017 – Hurricane Irma makes landfall on Cudjoe Key, Florida as a Category 4, after causing catastrophic damage throughout the Caribbean. Irma resulted in 134 deaths and $64.76 billion (2017 USD) in damage. Holidays and observances Amerindian Heritage Day (Guyana) Children's Day (Honduras) Christian feast day: Alexander Crummell (Episcopal Church) Aubert Blessed Thomas Tsugi, Charles Spinola, and Great Martyrs of Nagasaki Edmund James Peck (Anglican Church of Canada) Nicholas of Tolentino Theodard of Maastricht September 10 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) Gibraltar National Day Saint George's Caye Day (Belize) Teachers' Day (China) World Suicide Prevention Day
  23. September 9 is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar; 113 days remain until the end of the year. Events Pre-1600 9 – Arminius' alliance of six Germanic tribes ambushes and annihilates three Roman legions of Publius Quinctilius Varus in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest. 337 – Constantine II, Constantius II, and Constans succeed their father Constantine I as co-emperors. The Roman Empire is divided between the three Augusti. 533 – A Byzantine army of 15,000 men under Belisarius lands at Caput Vada (modern Tunisia) and marches to Carthage. 1000 – Battle of Svolder, Viking Age. 1087 – William Rufus becomes King of England, taking the title William II, (reigned until 1100). 1141 – Yelü Dashi, the Liao dynasty general who founded the Qara Khitai, defeats the Seljuq and Kara-Khanid forces at the Battle of Qatwan. 1320 – In the Battle of Saint George, the Byzantines under Andronikos Asen ambush and defeat the forces of the Principality of Achaea, securing possession of Arcadia. 1488 – Anne becomes sovereign Duchess of Brittany, becoming a central figure in the struggle for influence that leads to the union of Brittany and France. 1493 – Battle of Krbava Field, a decisive defeat of Croats in Croatian struggle against the invasion by the Ottoman Empire. 1493 – Christopher Columbus, with 17 ships and 1,200 men, sails on second voyage from Cadiz.[1] 1499 – The citizens of Lisabon are celebrating the triumphal return of the explorer Vasco de Gama, completing his two-year journey around the Cape of Good Hope to India.[2] 1513 – James IV of Scotland is defeated and dies in the Battle of Flodden, ending Scotland's involvement in the War of the League of Cambrai. 1543 – Mary Stuart, at nine months old, is crowned "Queen of Scots" in the central Scottish town of Stirling. 1561 – The ultimately unsuccessful Colloquy of Poissy opens in an effort to reconcile French Catholics and Protestants. 1601-1900 1739 – Stono Rebellion, the largest slave uprising in Britain's mainland North American colonies prior to the American Revolution, erupts near Charleston, South Carolina. 1776 – The Continental Congress officially names its union of states the United States. 1791 – Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States, is named after President George Washington. 1801 – Alexander I of Russia confirms the privileges of Baltic provinces. 1839 – John Herschel takes the first glass plate photograph. 1845 – Possible start of the Great Famine of Ireland.[3][4] 1850 – California is admitted as the thirty-first U.S. state. 1850 – The Compromise of 1850 transfers a third of Texas's claimed territory (now parts of Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Wyoming) to federal control in return for the U.S. federal government assuming $10 million of Texas's pre-annexation debt. 1855 – Crimean War: The Siege of Sevastopol comes to an end when Russian forces abandon the city. 1863 – American Civil War: The Union Army enters Chattanooga, Tennessee. 1892 – Amalthea, third closest and fifth found moon of Jupiter is discovered by Edward Emerson Barnard. 1901-present 1914 – World War I: The creation of the Canadian Automobile Machine Gun Brigade, the first fully mechanized unit in the British Army. 1922 – The Greco-Turkish War effectively ends with Turkish victory over the Greeks in Smyrna. 1923 – Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder of the Republic of Turkey, founds the Republican People's Party. 1924 – Hanapepe massacre occurs on Kauai, Hawaii. 1936 – The crews of Portuguese Navy frigate NRP Afonso de Albuquerque and destroyer Dão mutinied against the Salazar dictatorship's support of General Franco's coup and declared their solidarity with the Spanish Republic. 1939 – World War II: The Battle of Hel begins, the longest-defended pocket of Polish Army resistance during the German invasion of Poland. 1939 – Burmese national hero U Ottama dies in prison after a hunger strike to protest Britain's colonial government. 1940 – George Stibitz pioneers the first remote operation of a computer. 1940 – Treznea Massacre in Transylvania. 1942 – World War II: A Japanese floatplane drops incendiary bombs on Oregon. 1943 – World War II: The Allies land at Salerno and Taranto, Italy. 1944 – World War II: The Fatherland Front takes power in Bulgaria through a military coup in the capital and armed rebellion in the country. A new pro-Soviet government is established. 1945 – Second Sino-Japanese War: The Empire of Japan formally surrenders to China. 1947 – First case of a computer bug being found: A moth lodges in a relay of a Harvard Mark II computer at Harvard University. 1948 – Kim Il-sung declares the establishment of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea). 1954 – The 6.7 Mw  Chlef earthquake shakes northern Algeria with a maximum Mercalli intensity of XI (Extreme). At least 1,243 people were killed and 5,000 were injured. 1956 – Elvis Presley appears on The Ed Sullivan Show for the first time. 1965 – The United States Department of Housing and Urban Development is established. 1965 – Hurricane Betsy makes its second landfall near New Orleans, leaving 76 dead and $1.42 billion ($10–12 billion in 2005 dollars) in damages, becoming the first hurricane to cause over $1 billion in unadjusted damage. 1966 – The National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act is signed into law by U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson. 1969 – In Canada, the Official Languages Act comes into force, making French equal to English throughout the Federal government. 1970 – A British airliner is hijacked by the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine and flown to Dawson's Field in Jordan. 1971 – The four-day Attica Prison riot begins, eventually resulting in 39 dead, most killed by state troopers retaking the prison. 1972 – In Kentucky's Mammoth Cave National Park, a Cave Research Foundation exploration and mapping team discovers a link between the Mammoth and Flint Ridge cave systems, making it the longest known cave passageway in the world. 1990 – Batticaloa massacre: Massacre of 184 Tamil civilians by the Sri Lankan Army in Batticaloa District. 1991 – Tajikistan declares independence from the Soviet Union. 1993 – Israeli–Palestinian peace process: The Palestine Liberation Organization officially recognizes Israel as a legitimate state. 1994 – Space Shuttle program: Space Shuttle Discovery is launched on STS-64.[5] 2001 – Ahmad Shah Massoud, leader of the Northern Alliance, is assassinated in Afghanistan by two al-Qaeda assassins who claimed to be Arab journalists wanting an interview. 2002 – The Rafiganj train wreck happened in Bihar, India. 2009 – The Dubai Metro, the first urban train network in the Arabian Peninsula, is ceremonially inaugurated. 2012 – The Indian space agency puts into orbit its heaviest foreign satellite yet, in a streak of 21 consecutive successful PSLV launches. 2012 – A wave of attacks kill more than 100 people and injure 350 others across Iraq. 2015 – Elizabeth II became the longest reigning monarch of the United Kingdom. 2016 – The government of North Korea conducts its fifth and reportedly biggest nuclear test. World leaders condemn the act, with South Korea calling it "maniacal recklessness". Holidays and observances Christian feast day: Charles Lowder (Church of England) Ciarán of Clonmacnoise Constance, Nun, and her Companions (Episcopal Church) Our Lady of Arantzazu (Oñati) Peter Claver Synaxis of Ss. Joachim and Anna, an Afterfeast. (Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic Churches) September 9 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) Armored Forces Day (Ukraine) California Admission Day (California, United States) Children's Day (Costa Rica) Chrysanthemum Day or Kiku no Sekku (Japan) Day of the Victims of Holocaust and of Racial Violence (Slovakia) Emergency Services Day (United Kingdom) Independence Day or Republic Day, celebrates the proclamation of Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) in 1948. Independence Day (Tajikistan), celebrates the independence of Tajikistan from USSR in 1991. Martyrs' Day (Afghanistan) (date may fall on September 8, follows a non-Gregorian calendar, see List of observances set by the Solar Hijri calendar) Remembrance for Herman the Cheruscan (The Troth)
  24. September 8 is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar; 114 days remain until the end of the year. Events Pre-1600 617 – Battle of Huoyi: Li Yuan defeats a Sui dynasty army, opening the path to his capture of the imperial capital Chang'an and the eventual establishment of the Tang dynasty. 1100 – Election of Antipope Theodoric. 1198 – Philip of Swabia, Prince of Hohenstaufen, is crowned King of Germany (King of the Romans) 1253 – Pope Innocent IV canonises Stanislaus of Szczepanów, killed by king Bolesław II. 1264 – The Statute of Kalisz, guaranteeing Jews safety and personal liberties and giving battei din jurisdiction over Jewish matters, is promulgated by Bolesław the Pious, Duke of Greater Poland. 1276 – Pope John XXI is chosen. 1331 – Stefan Dušan declares himself king of Serbia. 1380 – Battle of Kulikovo: Russian forces defeat a mixed army of Tatars and Mongols, stopping their advance. 1504 – Michelangelo's David is unveiled in Piazza della Signoria in Florence. 1514 – Battle of Orsha: In one of the biggest battles of the century, Lithuanians and Poles defeat the Russian army. 1522 – Magellan–Elcano circumnavigation: Victoria arrives at Seville, technically completing the first circumnavigation. 1565 – St. Augustine, Florida is founded by Spanish admiral and Florida's first governor, Pedro Menéndez de Avilés. 1565 – The Knights of Malta lift the Ottoman siege of Malta that began on May 18. 1601-1900 1655 – Warsaw falls without resistance to a small force under the command of Charles X Gustav of Sweden during The Deluge, making it the first time the city is captured by a foreign army. 1727 – A barn fire during a puppet show in the village of Burwell in Cambridgeshire, England kills 78 people, many of whom are children. 1755 – French and Indian War: Battle of Lake George. 1756 – French and Indian War: Kittanning Expedition. 1761 – Marriage of King George III of the United Kingdom to Duchess Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. 1775 – The unsuccessful Rising of the Priests in Malta. 1781 – American Revolutionary War: The Battle of Eutaw Springs in South Carolina, the war's last significant battle in the Southern theater, ends in a narrow British tactical victory. 1793 – French Revolutionary Wars: Battle of Hondschoote. 1796 – French Revolutionary Wars: Battle of Bassano: French forces defeat Austrian troops at Bassano del Grappa. 1810 – The Tonquin sets sail from New York Harbor with 33 employees of John Jacob Astor's newly created Pacific Fur Company on board. After a six-month journey around the tip of South America, the ship arrives at the mouth of the Columbia River and Astor's men establish the fur-trading town of Astoria, Oregon. 1813 – At the final stage of the Peninsular War, British-Portuguese troops capture the town of Donostia (now San Sebastián), resulting in a rampage and eventual destruction of the town.[1] 1831 – William IV and Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen are crowned King and Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. 1831 – November uprising: The Battle of Warsaw effectively ends the Polish insurrection. 1860 – The steamship PS Lady Elgin sinks on Lake Michigan, with the loss of around 300 lives. 1862 – Millennium of Russia monument is unveiled in Novgorod. 1863 – American Civil War: In the Second Battle of Sabine Pass, a small Confederate force thwarts a Union invasion of Texas. 1883 – The Northern Pacific Railway (reporting mark NP) was completed in a ceremony at Gold Creek, Montana. Former president Ulysses S. Grant drove in the final "golden spike" in an event attended by rail and political luminaries. 1888 – Isaac Peral's submarine is first tested. 1888 – The Great Herding (Spanish: El Gran Arreo) begins with thousands of sheep being herded from the Argentine outpost of Fortín Conesa to Santa Cruz near the Strait of Magellan.[2] 1888 – In London, the body of Jack the Ripper's second murder victim, Annie Chapman, is found. 1888 – In England, the first six Football League matches are played. 1892 – The Pledge of Allegiance is first recited. 1900 – Galveston hurricane: A powerful hurricane hits Galveston, Texas killing about 8,000 people. 1901-present 1905 – The 7.2 Mw  Calabria earthquake shakes southern Italy with a maximum Mercalli intensity of XI (Extreme), killing between 557 and 2,500 people. 1914 – World War I: Private Thomas Highgate becomes the first British soldier to be executed for desertion during the war. 1916 – In a bid to prove that women were capable of serving as military dispatch riders, Augusta and Adeline Van Buren arrive in Los Angeles, completing a 60-day, 5,500 mile cross-country trip on motorcycles. 1921 – Margaret Gorman, a 16-year-old, wins the Atlantic City Pageant's Golden Mermaid trophy; pageant officials later dubbed her the first Miss America. 1923 – Honda Point disaster: Nine US Navy destroyers run aground off the California coast. Seven are lost, and twenty-three sailors killed. 1925 – Rif War: Spanish forces including troops from the Foreign Legion under Colonel Francisco Franco landing at Al Hoceima, Morocco. 1926 – Germany is admitted to the League of Nations. 1930 – 3M begins marketing Scotch transparent tape. 1933 – Ghazi bin Faisal became King of Iraq. 1934 – Off the New Jersey coast, a fire aboard the passenger liner SS Morro Castle kills 137 people. 1935 – US Senator from Louisiana Huey Long is fatally shot in the Louisiana State Capitol building. 1941 – World War II: German forces begin the Siege of Leningrad. 1943 – World War II: The Armistice of Cassibile is proclaimed by radio. OB Süd immediately implements plans to disarm the Italian forces. 1944 – World War II: London is hit by a V-2 rocket for the first time. 1945 – The division of Korea begins when United States troops arrive to partition the southern part of Korea in response to Soviet troops occupying the northern part of the peninsula a month earlier. 1946 – The referendum abolishes the monarchy in Bulgaria. 1952 – The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation makes its first televised broadcast on the second escape of the Boyd Gang. 1954 – The Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) is established. 1960 – In Huntsville, Alabama, US President Dwight D. Eisenhower formally dedicates the Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA had already activated the facility on July 1). 1962 – Last run of the famous Pines Express over the Somerset and Dorset Railway line (UK) fittingly using the last steam locomotive built by British Railways, BR Standard Class 9F 92220 Evening Star. 1966 – The landmark American science fiction television series Star Trek premieres with its first-aired episode, "The Man Trap". 1970 – Trans International Airlines Flight 863 crashes during takeoff from John F. Kennedy International Airport in New York City, killing all 11 aboard.[3] 1971 – In Washington, D.C., the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts is inaugurated, with the opening feature being the premiere of Leonard Bernstein's Mass. 1974 – Watergate scandal: US President Gerald Ford signs the pardon of Richard Nixon for any crimes Nixon may have committed while in office. 1975 – Gays in the military: US Air Force Tech Sergeant Leonard Matlovich, a decorated veteran of the Vietnam War, appears in his Air Force uniform on the cover of Time magazine with the headline "I Am A Homosexual". He is given a general discharge, later upgraded to honorable. 1978 – Black Friday, a massacre by soldiers against protesters in Tehran, results in 88 deaths, it marks the beginning of the end of the monarchy in Iran. 1986 – Nicholas Daniloff, a correspondent for the U.S. News & World Report, is indicted on charges of espionage by the Soviet Union. [4] 1988 – Yellowstone National Park is closed for the first time in U.S. history due to ongoing fires. 1989 – Partnair Flight 394 dives into the North Sea, killing 55 people. The investigation showed that the tail of the plane vibrated loose in flight due to sub-standard connecting bolts that had been fraudulently sold as aircraft-grade. 1994 – USAir Flight 427, on approach to Pittsburgh International Airport, suddenly crashes in clear weather killing all 132 aboard, resulting in the most extensive aviation investigation in world history and altering manufacturing practices in the industry. 2004 – NASA's unmanned spacecraft Genesis crash-lands when its parachute fails to open. 2005 – Two Ilyushin Il-76 aircraft from EMERCOM land at a disaster aid staging area at Little Rock Air Force Base; the first time Russia has flown such a mission to North America. 2016 – NASA launches OSIRIS-REx, its first asteroid sample return mission. The probe will visit 101955 Bennu and is expected to return with samples in 2023. 2017 – Syrian civil war: The Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) announce the beginning of the Deir ez-Zor campaign, with the stated aim of eliminating the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) from all areas north and east of the Euphrates. Holidays and observances Christian Feast Day: Adrian and Natalia of Nicomedia (Roman Catholic Church) Corbinian Disibod Nativity of Mary (Roman Catholic Church), (Anglo-Catholicism) Monti Fest (Mangalorean Catholic) Our Lady of Charity Our Lady of Covadonga Our Lady of Good Health of Vailankanni Pope Sergius I September 8 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) Feast Day of Our Lady of Meritxell (national holiday in Andorra) Earliest day on which Auditor's Day can fall, while September 14 is the latest; celebrated on the second Sunday in September. (Church of Scientology) Earliest day on which Grandparents Day (Estonia) can fall, while September 14 is the latest; celebrated on the second Sunday in September. (Estonia) Earliest day on which Mid-Autumn Festival can fall, while October 8 is the latest; celebrated on the 15th day in the 8th month of Chinese calendar. (China, Chinese diaspora) Earliest day on which Turkmen Bakhshi Day can fall, while September 14 is the latest; celebrated on the second Sunday in September. (Turkmenistan) Day of the Battle of Borodino (Russia) Feast of 'Izzat – First day of the tenth month of the Baháʼí calendar. (Baháʼí Faith) Independence Day, celebrates the independence of Macedonia from Yugoslavia in 1991. International Literacy Day (International)[26] Martyrs' Day (Afghanistan) (date may fall on September 9, follows a non-Gregorian calendar) National Day, also the feast of Our Lady of Meritxell (Andorra) Victory Day (Pakistan) Victory Day, also the feast of Our Lady of Victories or il-Vittorja (Malta) World Physical Therapy Day
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